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© 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Officers Training Officers Strategy & Tactics Battalion Chiefs Paul McNeel & John Tippett.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Officers Training Officers Strategy & Tactics Battalion Chiefs Paul McNeel & John Tippett."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Officers Training Officers Strategy & Tactics Battalion Chiefs Paul McNeel & John Tippett

2 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Student Performance Objectives Todays presentation will provide the attendee with an introduction to several concepts that should enhance emergency scene performance on the fireground.

3 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Overview Command Sequence Strategy Tactics Tasks Reading Smoke Handling the MAYDAY Photo by Bob Bartosz

4 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP MCFRS Philosophy We will risk a life to save a life; we will use considerable caution to protect savable property; we will not risk a life to save what is already lost.

5 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Command Sequence Step by step decision making process of incident management Performing size – up –(The Thinking Phase) Determining strategy & selecting tactics –(The Planning Phase) Implementing the action plan –(The Action Phase)

6 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Strategy Loosely defined as what has to be done to solve the problem »Broad Goals »Overall plan to control the operation

7 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Three Modes Offensive Defensive Transitional

8 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Offensive – coordinated, aggressive interior attack Adequate resources Predict benefits worth risks Necessary support functions

9 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Defensive – fight the fire with minimum risk Risk too great for benefit Insufficient resources Maximize safety Stay out of collapse zone No entry made Contain fire in area of present involvement Protect exposures Loss of building probable Master stream operation

10 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Transitional - switching from one operational mode to the other Defensive to Offensive –No entry made until additional resources arrive –Begin interior attack Offensive to Defensive –Confine fire until rescue can be completed –Protect exposures Photo by Ed Ruping

11 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP National Fire Academy Incident Priorities PRIORITY Life Safety Incident Stabilization Property Conservation BENCHMARK All Clear Under Control Loss Stopped

12 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Lloyd Laymans Strategies R-E-C-E-O -VS- Rescue Exposures Confinement Extinguishment Overhaul Ventilation-Salvage Photo by Carlos Alfaro

13 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Tactics The execution of the Strategic Plan Tactics deals specifically with selecting, placing, and operating: PERSONNEL, HOSELINES, LADDERS TOOLS & EQUIPMENT

14 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Engine Company Tactics NOZZLE SELECTION HANDLINE SELECTION HANDLINE PLACEMENT TACTICAL HOSE MANAGEMENT Photo by Carlos Alfaro

15 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Principal role of the engine company is to: Locate, Confine, and Extinguish the fire. Photo by Carlos Alfaro

16 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Select the appropriate nozzle and handline based on: Required fire flow (L x W/3) Staffing Attack Mode (Offensive, Defensive, Transitional)

17 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Handline Selection 1 3/4 minimum for interior fire attack. Rules of thumb: –Up to three rooms involved, 1 3/4. –Three or more rooms involved, 2 or larger. –Commercial occupancy - 2 or larger. –High rise, 1 3/4 w/solid stream or 2 +.

18 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Handline Placement Handlines are placed to accomplish one of three goals: Protect occupants Protect means of egress Attack and extinguish fire, including extension

19 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 3-Line Concept 1 st line – Attack 2 nd line – Stand by/Back up 3 rd line – Back up/Extension Prevention

20 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Tactical Hose Management Fully stretch drag loads before flaking shoulder loads. Un-needed hose should not be stretched into a building. Additional hose should be flaked outside of the entrance.

21 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Support personnel (EMS crews, truck company/rescue squad personnel) should assist with hose stretch. Add one additional length for each flight of stairs. Ensure hose wraps around banister and doesnt get wedged in a narrow well.

22 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP For open well stairs, keep line in well. Secure line to rail when attack advance begins. Open well stretch requires only one length for every five stories of height. Apply the rule of thumb to determine how much hose should be stretched into occupancy.

23 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Rule of Thumb Length + Width of Building + one length for each floor above or below grade EXAMPLE Fire on the 1st Floor = 200

24 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Special Service Tactics L adders O verhaul V entilation E ntry R escue S alvage U tilities Photo by Carlos Alfaro

25 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Ladders & Ventilation Prepare the building for entry by engine company and search teams.

26 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Ladder Selection & Placement Quick Select Method Choose the ladder that has the same first digit as the floor you are trying to reach. (Example: Need to reach a 2 nd story window, choose a 2 4 or 2 8 ladder. Need to reach the roof of a 3 story building, choose a 3 5 ladder.) Photo by Carlos Alfaro

27 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Ventilation Vent for two reasons: fire life (Battalion Chief John Norman, FDNY)

28 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Venting for life begins as soon as a life hazard is realized. May intensify the fire. Venting for fire is delayed until attack teams and resources are in place.

29 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Search Move rapidly Close interior doors Stay in contact with walls Search with a partner Use tools and lights Search without a hoseline ONLY when there is reasonable certainty that a victim is inside and conditions suggest survivability is likely. Photo by Carlos Alfaro

30 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Do not compromise the protective membrane of the compartment that surrounds you while you are conducting search operations.

31 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Requires a commitment of resources to areas most likely to contain victims. a. bedrooms b.interior travel routes (hallways & stairs) c. outside the structure

32 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Narrowing the Search Where were victims were last seen? Cries for help heard? Is the structure occupied or not? Photo by Morningside VFD

33 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Vent-Enter-Search (VES) Advantage - search personnel enter structure from safe atmosphere (outside), search small areas (sometimes single rooms), then exit. Disadvantage - often conducted ahead of hoseline on fire side of structure. If PPV goes in service, entry point can become exhaust port for PPV.

34 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Must be coordinated with Incident Commander. VES should only be used when probability of finding victim is high!

35 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Tasks Labor intensive activities that work to satisfy either: Laymans RECEO(SV) or NFAs LIPs (Strategies)

36 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Specific activities that firefighters engage in to satisfy tactics

37 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Advancing handlines Throwing ladders Operating nozzles Operating pumps Using tools and appliances

38 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Reading Smoke TEMPE, ARIZONA PROGRAM

39 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Handling the MAYDAY! Standardized Survival Actions of a Lost/Disoriented Firefighter

40 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 1.STAY CALM! Conserve your air supply. 2.Stay with your partner (or crew). 3.Initiate a MAYDAY U – Unit C – Conditions A – Actions N – Needs

41 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 4.Activate PASS 5.Monitor radio/Update Turn off PASS to communicate! Reactivate PASS after! 6.Use flashlight to signal 7.Use tools or debris to alert rescuers

42 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 8.Attempt to locate an exit/area of refuge Move toward visible light Listen for audible sounds Search walls for windows/doors Search for a hoseline (read couplings) Attempt to locate a lifeline

43 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 9.Go down steps unless in a basement or sub-floor. 10.Assume defensive posture Lie on your right side Protect facepiece with gloved hands

44 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Handling the MAYDAY! Standardized Actions of a Rapid Intervention Company in Locating and Removing a Lost/Disoriented Firefighter

45 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Pre-plan structure and fire conditions upon arrival –Prolonged burn time/heavy fire conditions –Smoke/water showing through walls –Inadequate ventilation (potential for rapid fire development) –Sagging floors, bulging walls, localized interior collapse –2 or more floors involved –Unprotected steel

46 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Fireground Preparations 1.Proactive ladders 2.*Four-side scene lighting/Entry point lighting 3.Back-up/Safety Lines 4.Proactive security bar removal

47 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Response to the MAYDAY 1.Monitor Radio communications 2.RIC is not rapid (Phoenix/Seattle trials) 3.Consider personal limitations Smurfs rescuing Gullivers Dont become a victim yourself!

48 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 4.Personnel Discipline Those closest may assist Those not closest need to get out of the way! Fire Attack must continue 5.Look for signals Activated PASS Alarm flashlight beams banging on walls and floors dropped helmet

49 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP 6.*Check exterior walls and corners* 7.RIC Team Concept AWARE A ir W ater A R adio E xtrication plan

50 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Three or more teams RIC #1 – Recon & Search Locate downed/lost member Establish traceable means of access to victim Determine additional needs RIC #2 – Stabilization/Removal Provide equipment & personnel requested Begin extrication process

51 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP RIC #3 – Support Team –Provide external support –Provide personnel to support Photo by Morningside VFD

52 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP The successful rescue of a downed firefighter is dependent upon a well- defined rescue action plan that is continually updated. Photo by Ed Ruping

53 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Wrap Up Be Vigilant, Stay Focused (BVSF). Think before you act. Use all of your resources (CRM). Dont Wreck enroute! You are no help if you are not there! Seek out other S&T opportunities. Conduct a hotwash after each incident.

54 © 2004 Montgomery County Fire Rescue Training AcademyOTOP Think Strategically, Act Tactically This program was developed by the Montgomery County Fire/Rescue Training Academy © 2004 No part may be used or copied without the expressed written consent of the Training Officer.


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