8 OUTGUNNED When was the last time you had a fire behavior class? Fire PhenomenaFire Development is a function of many factors including: fuel properties, fuel quantity, ventilation (natural or mechanical), compartment geometry (volume and ceiling height), location of fire, and ambient conditions (temperature, wind, etc).When was the last time you had a fire behavior class?
10 Sometimes we just need to put water on the fire!
11 How Much Is Enough? How many firefighters do you have? How many firefighters do you need?How long will it take for the right amount of firefighters to arrive?What is on fire?How big is the fire?When did you start thinking about it?
16 Chief Alan Brunacini, Ret. The initial radio report is probably the most important communications the incident commander will hear!Chief Alan Brunacini, Ret.
17 Limited staffing impacts all tactical activities. Realizing the impact limited staffing has on selection of appropriate strategy is a critical decision making component.Limited staffing impacts all tactical activities.
18 Service Expectations Have Steadily Increased EMS, response to natural disasters, hazardous materials incidents, and acts of terrorism.This presentation explains some of the outcomes determined during the conduct of this research on the effects of varying crew sizes, first apparatus arrival time, and response time on firefighter safety, overall task completion, and interior residential tenability using realistic residential fires.Local decision makers are challenged to balance these community service expectations with finite resources.
23 ROLE OF COMMAND Situational Overload Strategy/Tactics Resources BuildingFire/Location-SizeAccountabilityAction Plan
24 CRITICAL DECISION MAKING Decision making is improved through:TrainingExperienceCommunication SkillsPreplanning
25 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Perception of what is going on around you!Affects performance and decision making!If it is not maintained, errors occur!Tendency to ignore information that is out of context!
26 SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Fight the Fire!Assess Problems in the Time Available!Gather Information from All SourcesChoose the Best OptionMonitor Results and Alter the Plan as NecessaryBeware of the Loss of Situational Awareness
28 What is wrong with applying LOTS of water from the exterior?
29 Impact of externally applied water. In these experiments, the externally applied water streams were implemented in different ways;
30 a fog stream inserted into the fire room window, a fog stream flowed from the floor below into the fire room window opening, and a solid water stream flowed from the floor below into the fire room window opening.
31 In all cases, the water flows suppressed the fires, thereby causing reductions in temperature in the corridor and the stairwell of at least 50 %. The water flow rates used in these experiments were between 160 gpm and 200 gpm, demonstrating that a relatively small amount of water applied directly to the burn fuels can have a significant impact.