3 Revolution Threatens the French King 1700’s France – most advanced country and center of EnlightenmentProsperous foreign tradeLarge populationHighly praised culture
4 Problems High Prices High taxes Influence of Enlightenment philosophers Rousseau and Voltaire.
5 Old Regime First Estate (Clergy) Owned 10% of land. Assisted the poor. Gave 2% of itsincome to the government.
6 Second Estate Rich nobles 2% of the population. Owned 20% of land. Paid no taxes.
7 The first and second estates scorned Enlightenment ideas.
8 Third Estate 98% of the population Consisted of three different groups:BourgeoisieCity WorkersPeasants
9 Bourgeoisie Merchants and artisans Well educated Believed in enlightenment idealsPaid high taxes
10 City Workers Cooks, servants, laborers, etc. Paid low wages Frequently unemployedOften went hungry.
11 PeasantsLargest group of third estate 80% of population (26 million people)Paid half of income to nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the kingEager for change
12 Forces of change Enlightenment Ideals Economy Equality, liberty, and democracyEncouraged by American revolutionEconomy1780’s crop failuresHigh taxesLarge debt
13 Weak leadership Louis XVI was indecisive Married an unpopular Austrian princess MarieAntoinetteAttempted to tax thesecond estate (nobles)
14 Estates general (May 5, 1789)An assembly of representatives from all three estates.Called together by the king, under pressure from the nobles to vote on new taxes.
15 Clergy and nobles expected to control the Estates General as they had in Middle Ages. The Third Estate insisted on equal representation for all estates, wanted one vote for each delegate.
16 Abbe Sieyes“What is the third estate? Everything…What does it demand? To become something herein.”Suggests a National Assembly be formed.
17 National AssemblyJune 17, 1789, a vote was passed to form National Assembly.Pass new laws and reforms to change France.First act of the Revolution
18 Tennis Court OathThird estate delegates locked out of their meeting room.Broke into tennis court and pledged to stay until a constitution was created.The pledge came to be known as the Tennis Court Oath.
19 King Louis XVINo longer trusts French guards, hires Swiss to protect him at VersaillesRumors of foreign troops coming to murder French citizens under King’s orders run rampantPeople gather weapons and go to get gunpowder at the…
20 The Bastille July 14, 1789 Was a prison where gunpowder was stored Mob overtakes guardsBecomes a symbol of revolution
21 Great FearRebellion spreads across countryside as do rumors that peasants are being terrorizedThis sparks the great fear where peasants get pitchforks and torches and attack nobles’ houses burning them down
22 Rioting ContinuesParisian women riot in October of 1789 angry over the cost of breadMen join in arm themselves and march to VersaillesThey kill some soldiers and demand that the Royal Family go to ParisThey do signaling they no longer have power