Presentation on theme: "Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7 Section 2."— Presentation transcript:
Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Chapter 7 Section 2
Main Ideas The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power. Some governments that lack the support of a majority of their people still use fear to control their citizens.
Introduction Peasants, nobles and church officers all felt the Great Fear. Peasants began attacking the upper classes’ houses. Right before the March on Versailles, some nobles and clergy members responded with a late night meeting.
The Assembly Reforms France August 4, 1789 – noblemen declare their love for liberty and equality. Joined with members of the National Assembly to sweep away their privileges over the Third Estate. By morning the Old Regime was dead.
The Rights of Man A few weeks later, a document is drafted reflecting the ideals similar to the DOI. Known as the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen, it stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights”. Adopt “Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” as their slogan.
A State-Controlled Church Many of the early reforms focused on the Church. The assembly took over Church lands and declared that Church officials were to be elected and paid as state officials. The Church lost both its land and political independence. Proceeds from the sale would help France pay off its debt.
Alarmed Peasants Peasants were devout Catholics and were alarmed by the assembly’s actions. Mixing Church and State offended them.
Louis Tries to Escape Due to the new relationship between church and state, Louis XVI pondered his fate as a monarch. He was warned he and his family were in danger. They attempt to escape to the Austrian Netherlands. They were caught and returned to Paris. This upset the radicals and sealed his fate.
A Limited Monarchy Louis reluctantly approved the new constitution in 1791. It called for a limited constitutional monarchy. It created a new legislative body, the Legislative Assembly. Create laws and approve/decline declarations of war. King has power to enforce laws.
Emigres and Sans-Culottes Emigres – wanted to restore the Old Regime Nobles Sans-Culottes – wanted even greater changes. Workers and small shop keepers.
France at War After a few months of war with Austria and Prussia, the Legislative Assembly sets aside the constitution and dissolved itself. A new governing body, National Convention, arose. Abolished the monarchy. Declared France a republic. Gave men the right to vote.
Jacobins Take Control Jacobin Club – radical political organization Jean-Paul Marat – prominent Jacobin Called for death to all those who support the king. National Convention was guided by Jacobins. Declared Louis XVI a common citizen and prisoner. Tried him for treason. He met the guillotine on January 21, 1793.
War Continues National Convention also has to deal with Austria and Prussia. To reinforce the army, the Jacobins initiate a draft. 300,000 citizens between 18-40. Included women. Army grew to 800,000 people.
Robespierre Assumes Control Maximilien Robespierre, a Jacobin, gained power. Wiped out France’s past. Changed the calendar – 12 months, 30 days and renamed each. No Sundays religion was outdated and dangerous. Closed all churches in Paris. Trend continued throughout France.
Robespierre Became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. Governed France as a dictator. Became known as the Reign of Terror. Tried “enemies” in the morning, guillotined in the afternoon. Around 40,000 people died during the Reign of Terror.
End of Terror Members of the National Convention turned against Robespierre. They demanded his arrest and execution. He, too, met the guillotine (July 28, 1794).
New Government Two-house legislature Executive body of five men – Directory Moderates They returned order to France. Found a general to command France’s armies – Napoleon Bonaparte.