Presentation on theme: "The Cold War (1945 – early 1990s) The Cold War – began after WWII – Cold War an arms race between the U.S. & Soviet Union. –Each nation spent large amounts."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War (1945 – early 1990s) The Cold War – began after WWII – Cold War an arms race between the U.S. & Soviet Union. –Each nation spent large amounts of money to fund the military. –U.S. later used policy of brinksmanship – threat of going to the edge of war with Soviet Union. –Korean War & Vietnam War fought to stop spread of communism.
Satellite Nations –Eastern European countries became satellite nations after WWII (Stalin did not allow free elections and banned democratic parties) – all were forced to be Communist & controlled by Soviet Union. Truman Doctrine –President Truman proposed policy of containment to stop spread of communism. (Ex: Korea, Vietnam). U.S. believed in domino theory – if one nation fell to communist control, neighboring nations would fall to communism also. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) –Military alliance formed between U.S. & Western European countries. Agreed to help each other fight spread of communism. –The Soviet Union responded with the Warsaw Pact – a military alliance with its satellite nations.
Marshall Plan (1948 – 1952) –After WWII, the U.S. wanted to strengthen Western European democracies and economies. –Named after U.S. Secretary of State George C. Marshall, the U.S. gave billions of dollars in aid – Marshall Plan revived Western Europe and kept it from falling to communism.
United Nations (UN) –UN formed after WWII to keep world peace. –U.S. & Soviet Union used UN as forum to spread influence over others (democracy vs. communism). “Iron Curtain” –phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe division between free, democratic nations & communist nations in Europe.
Berlin, Germany –German city of Berlin considered “front line” of Cold War. Western part of Berlin (occupied by U.S., British, French forces) surrounded by Soviet territory. Berlin Airlift (1948- 1949) –Stalin ordered blockade of West Berlin in attempt to take over. –U.S. and Britain airlifted supplies for 327 days to West Berlin – succeed and Soviets ended blockade. –Victory in effort to “contain” communism. Boosted American prestige around the world.
Berlin Wall (1961 – 1989) – Million of East Germans fled to West Berlin to be free of communist rule. –Aug. 1961 Soviet leader Khrushchev ordered construction of Berlin Wall to keep people from fleeing to freedom. –In 1963 President Kennedy visited West Berlin. In a speech he declared, “Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner). Showed solidarity of all free people with the people of West Berlin. –(Berlin Wall came down and Berlin united in 1989)
Korean War (1950-1953) –Communist North Korea invaded democratic South Korea. –Soviets funded N. Korea. U.S. funded and sent troops to help South Korea (containment). –Korean War ended in a draw – border between two nations re- established at 38 th parallel. Korea remains divided today.
Vietnam War (1965-1972) –Communist North Vietnam (Vietcong) attacked democratic South Vietnam. –U.S. sent troops & aid to South Vietnam. Fighting difficult – jungle warfare, hard to tell friend from enemy, harmful chemicals like napalm & Agent Orange hurt troops and civilians.
Impact of Vietnam War –Hawks pro-war. Doves anti- war. Vietnam left country deeply divided. Older generation supported effort. Younger generation opposed effort. –Vietnam America’s longest war. U.S. eventually withdrew troops from Vietnam. –Anti-war protests sparked passage of 26 th Constitutional Amendment – gave 18 year olds right to vote (old enough to fight = old enough to vote).