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Benchmark E – Post World War II

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1 Benchmark E – Post World War II
OGT – Chapter 4 Benchmark E – Post World War II

2 1. The two “Superpowers” after World War II were the SOVIET UNION in the East and the UNITED STATES in the West. 2. The COLD WAR is a term that is used to describe the conflict between the superpowers as they attempted to extend their influence after WWII. The war was described in this way because there was never a CONFRONTATION of OPEN warfare between the two enemies.

3 Question 3: American Democracy Soviet Communism Political System People have the right to form their own political parties and elect their own leaders Dictatorship controlled by the communist party Individual Rights Free speech, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of Religion, etc. State police spied on individuals, arresting those who criticized the government Economic System Individuals and corporations own their own businesses. They provide goods and services to consumers in order to make a profit. Government owned major industries and determined what was produced.

4 4. Stalin promised FREE elections in Eastern Europe but eventually broke that promised and created several “SATELLITE” nations. These nations served as a BUFFER for the Soviet Union against the west. Identify the nations that Stalin used as a buffer and were given the nickname of the IRON CURTAIN by Winston Churchill: East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania .

5 5. Identify and describe two attempts the United States took to help prevent Stalin from taking over Europe. Truman Doctrine – In 1947, President Truman offered support to Greece, Turkey and any free countries trying to fight off communism. With this doctrine our “Containment Policy” began.

6 Marshall Plan – In 1947, Secretary of State George C
Marshall Plan – In 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall announced a plan that would send billions of dollars in financial aid to the Western European nations to help them rebuild and be better prepared to fight a communist overthrow and provide trading partners for the U.S.

7 6. In the late 1940’s two Germany’s were created
6. In the late 1940’s two Germany’s were created. WEST Germany was created when Great Britain, France and the United States merged their occupied zones and the Soviet Union reacted by creating EAST Germany. Berlin was located in EAST Germany and the Western Allies helped the people of West Berlin with the BERLIN AIRLIFT which was used to supply the city with food and supplies after the Soviet Union blocked all highway and railroad links to Berlin. Eventually the Soviets lifted the blockade.

8 Berlin Airlift

9 7. In 1949 NATO or the NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION was formed to protect Western Europe by the U.S., CANADA and 10 other Western European Countries. To counter this the Soviet Union created the WARSAW PACT. 8. In China there was a COMMUNIST revolution led by MAO ZEDONG in 1949 after both the COMMUNIST and ANTI COMMUNIST forces in China had fought together in WWII against Japan. This government has remained in power to this day.

10 9. Identify and describe two events that took place after WWII that led to the Cold War. Emergence of Two Superpowers – The Soviet Union with the largest military and the U.S. with the strongest economy and the atomic bomb were the strongest nations after WWII. Ideological differences – The U.S. wanted to spread democracy while the Soviet Union wanted to spread communism. Soviet Security Fears – Hitler invading the Soviet Union left the fear of future attack with Stalin so he wanted to protect the Soviet Union by gaining control of Eastern Europe. U.S. leaders Avoid Isolation or Appeasement – The U.S. wanted to avoid past mistakes and was determined to contain the spread of communism. New Weapons Lead to the Cold War – Because of new and dangerous weapons like the atomic bomb the two superpowers decided to have verbal and philosophical battles rather than attack each other. The Rise of Communism in Asia – China turned to communism shortly after WWII.

11 10. The KOREAN War began in 1950 when COMMUNIST North Korea invaded pro-Western South Korea. President TRUMAN decided to send a message and led UN forces against the COMMUNISTS. When UN forces entered N. Korea, CHINA entered the conflict and in 1953 a compromise was reached which ended the fighting. Today North Korea and South Korea remain divided.

12 11.Give an example and explain how the Soviet Union dealt with countries that tried to fight Soviet control of their country? Hungary threatened to leave the Warsaw Pact in 1956 and the Soviet Union sent troops to crush the rebellion.

13 12. What was the Berlin Wall and why was it built?
It was a wall built between West and East Berlin. To prevent people living in East Germany from escaping to West Germany by getting to West Berlin. From West Berlin they could escape to West Germany.

14 13. The CUBAN Missile Crisis occurred in 1962
13.The CUBAN Missile Crisis occurred in The leader of Cuba was FIDEL CASTRO who was the COMMUNIST leader since He agreed to put NUCLEAR missiles from the SOVIET UNION. President KENNEDY sent up a Naval BLOCKADE around Cuba. Eventually the Soviets removed their missiles and the U.S. agreed to not INVADE Cuba.

15 14. The Vietnam War began after the FRENCH left in 1954
14. The Vietnam War began after the FRENCH left in The country was divided into two sections the North which was COMMUNIST and the South which was pro WESTERN. The NORTH invaded the SOUTH and the United States entered the war trying to prevent other ASIAN countries from falling to communism. The Paris Peace Talks led to the withdraw of U.S. troops and this became the only war involving the United States that we lost. In 1975 North and South Vietnam united under COMMUNIST rule.

16 15. The end of the Cold War came about in the late 1980’S with the fall of COMMUNISM in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. During the 1970’s the Soviet economy struggled and beginning in the early 80’s much of the Soviet output went to maintaining the ARMS RACE with the United States. Mikhail GORBACHEV took over as the leader of the Soviet Union and tried to save communism but his proposals of “OPENESS” failed to help economy. Many of the nationalities under his power began to seek independence. In 1991 Russia, BELARUS and Ukraine declared their independence and other republics followed thus ending the SOVIET UNION.

17 16. Explain the impact that the changes and eventual fall of the Soviet Union had on Eastern European countries, especially Poland and Germany. In Poland many changes began to take place as the Soviet Union struggled. The workers had formed an independent union under the leadership of Lech Walensa and eventually a non communist government took over after free elections in Other Eastern European countries soon followed this pattern.

18 16. Explain the impact that the changes and eventual fall of the Soviet Union had on Eastern European countries, especially Poland and Germany. In 1989 many East Germans fled to West Germany and the Communist government of East Germany resigned. The Berlin Wall was knocked down after travel restrictions had been lifted and Germany united in 1990.

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