2 Origins of the Cold War U.S.-Soviet Relations to 1945 Allies in World War IIPostwar Cooperation – the U.NSatellite States in Eastern EuropeOccupation Zones in GermanyIron Curtain
3 THE COLD WAR vs Uneasy peace between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Competition for world dominance and global power.Fought on political and economic fronts rather than on military battlefields Even though the threat of war was always present.Defined America’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1989.It affected domestic politics and how Americans viewed the world and themselves.Constant state of military preparedness and arms racePropaganda war----Democracy vs CommunismUS policy: Support nations threatened by Communism
4 NATO ALLIANCE AND WARSAW PACT Communistic Warsaw PactCommunistic Warsaw Pact
5 The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War map/cold war1950’sDemocracy vs. CommunismBi-Polarization of the WorldSoviet Union/China and Allies……..US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies.
6 The Cold War: Roots of the Conflict Soviet Expansion:· The Soviet Union occupied most of Eastern Europe by the end of World War II.
7 Satellite State When a nation is under the control of another. Ex. Part of Germany was under the control of the Soviet Union.Other examples: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria
8 The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
9 Truman Doctrine  Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
10 Marshall Plan  “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George MarshallThe U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected].
11 * The U.S. gave over $12 billion in aid to European countries between 1948 and 1952, helping to improve their economies and lessen the chance of communist revolutions.
12 CONTAINMENT POLICY 1950’s Soviet Union/China and Allies…….. map/cold war1950’sContainment: Stop the expansion of Communism in Asia and EuropeSoviet Union/China and Allies……..US, Allied Nations and Allied colonies.
13 Communist Expansion A Chronology of Events Soviet Union 1918Berlin BlockadeEastern Europe 1946China 1949Korean War 1950 to 1953CONTAINMENTMarshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean WarCommunist Expansion A Chronology of Events11
14 Focus on BerlinAfter World War II, Germany was divided into four zones, occupied by French, British, American, and Soviet troops.Occupation zones after Berlin is the multinational area within the Soviet zone.
15 Soviet blockade: East Berlin West Berlin East GermanyWest Germany· In June of 1948, the French, British and American zones were joined into the nation of West Germany after the Soviets refused to end their occupation of Germany.
16 Eventual site of the Berlin Wall · In response, the Soviets cut off West Berlin from the rest of the world with a blockade.Eventual site of the Berlin Wall
17 Berlin Airlift· President Truman decided to avoid the blockade by flying in food and other supplies to the needy people of West Berlin.· At times, over 5,000 tons of supplies arrived daily.
19 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Military alliance to counter Soviet expansion.United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
21 Warsaw Pact (1955)Soviet Union and satellite states rival alliance to NATOU. S. S. R.AlbaniaBulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
22 1949, THE YEAR OF SHOCKMao Tse TungMao Tse Tung, defeats Chang Kai Shek in the Chinese Civil War…..China became a communistic country.Chang Kai Shak is exiled to Taiwan.Mao Tse Tung becomes the Communistic leader of China.US believed there was a communistic plot to rule the worldChang Kai ShekNATO
23 KOREAN WAR 1950 to 1953, North Korea invades South Korea. North Korea was a communist nation and South Korea was a democracy.First war of “containment” policy to stop communism“Police Action” not a declared warPresident Truman leads United Nations.General Douglas MacArthur commands US and UN troops.Called “forgotten war”.
24 KOREAN WARTruman vs. MacArthurTruman fires General MacArthur when he advises Truman he would use nuclear weapons against the Chinese.
25 Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to war KOREAN WARStalemate by 1953.Pres. Eisenhower negotiated an end to warDivided at 38th parallelCommunism containedRemains divided today