2 After War Germany will be divided into military zones. British, American, French, and USSR zone.Post-War occupation of Japan was led by General MacArthur.economy was devastatedShortages
3 Conflicting GoalsPotsdam Conference (1945) - This was the start of the Cold War when Joseph Stalin refused free elections in Eastern Europe.US Goals:1. Encourage self-determination2. Gain access to materials and markets (globally)3. Rebuild Europe4. Reunite Germany5. Stop the spread of CommunismUSSR Goals:1. Encourage Communism2. Rebuild their own economy using the countries of Eastern Europe3. Maintain control of Eastern Europe (Satellite Nations)Keep Germany divided so they are never a threat again.The two super powers will never fight, but they will use other countries as battle grounds - Cuba, Korea, Vietnam, Latin America, and the Middle East.
4 Europe after WW2 United Nations 1. Created in 1945 after WW2 to replace League of Nations.L.o.N was ineffective2. Goals are to promote cooperation in international law, security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and world peace.Based on the Atlantic Charter3. Security CouncilMaintain peace and security among countries.Iron CurtainSoviet Union took control of all of Eastern EuropeWinston Churchill described the situation as an “iron curtain descending across the continent of Europe.”
9 The New US foreign policy Containment (1946) -1. The policy developed by U.S. Ambassador George Kennan, stated:a. Eastern Europe is already lost to Communism so we should keep it there.b. U.S. should prevent the spread of communism.Truman Doctrine (1947)-called the U.S. to take over a leadership role in world by supporting countries threatened by communism.Marshall Plan ( ) -Created be President Truman’s Secretary of State : George MarshallProvided $13 million in aid to Western European CountriesThe economy of all countries grew, output rose 35%
11 Berlin Airlift: June 1948 - May 1949 1. At the Yalta Conference, US/USSR/France/Britain agreed to occupy the city of Berlin in East Germany.2. In 1948, the 3 western zones of Berlin merged and with the Marshall plan became very prosperous.a. The poverty of East Berlin became an embarrassment for Stalin.3. Stalin then blockaded the city of Berlin by not letting Allied convoys into the city through Soviet-controlled part of Germany.a. Stalin was attempting to force the Allies out of Berlin4. President Truman decided to airlift supplies to the people of Berlin.a. 2.2 million tons of supplies - everyday for 327 days.b. total of 227,000 flights
12 Nato (North Atlantic Trade Organization) 1949 The US and 10 Western European Countries promised collective security for each other to defend against Soviet aggression.Warsaw Pact (1955) - Soviet Response - links them with Eastern Europe.Communism in China ( )Moa Zedong and the communists overthrew Chiang Kai-Shek and the Nationalists.Domino Theory - If one nation falls to communism, how many might follow.