Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1948 - 1991. 1946 – Post-war Europe After World War II, western Europe and America are alarmed by Soviet advances in Eastern Europe. Many."— Presentation transcript:
1946 – Post-war Europe After World War II, western Europe and America are alarmed by Soviet advances in Eastern Europe. Many Europeans and Americans believed that the communists were trying to take over the world! March 1946 - Winston Churchill warns of the “Iron Curtain” of Soviet totalitarianism. Winston Churchill at Fulton
The Cold War It was the global competition between the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union and their supporters. The beginnings of the Cold War are found in Occupied Germany. The Soviets disagreed with the British, French, and Americans about the governing of Germany after World War II.
Where did it begin? –in Europe October 24, 1948 –The term “Cold War” is coined by Bernard M. Baruch in a speech to the Senate War Investigating Committee. –“Although the war is over, we are in the midst of a cold war which is getting warmer.” Why was it a “cold” war? –countries never mobilized armies in an official war The Cold War
1948 – The Marshall Plan What was it? –a plan to rebuild Europe after World War II using loans What were the goals? –rebuild Europe –stop the spread of communism Under the Marshall Plan –factories were rebuilt –mines were reopened –roads were repaired and replaced George Marshall
Would the Marshall Plan help or hurt the Soviets?
1948 – The Truman Doctrine a policy of containment of communist incursions into other countries It was an important part of American foreign policy for the next 40 years. Basically… –not letting communism spread!
1949 - NATO What is it? –The North Atlantic Treaty Organization What was the point? –to respond to possible attacks by the Soviet Union WHY? –Each nation in NATO believed the Soviet Union would not attack western Europe if the U.S. would launch nuclear war in return. –This is known as deterrence; it is designed to deter or discourage an attack.
1955 – Warsaw Pact What is it? –an alliance of the Soviet Union and its communist satellite nations Why was it formed? –to counter NATO –an anti-Western military alliance Why “Warsaw”? –Warsaw, Poland was the city where the treaty was signed Satellite nation? Is that like satellite TV? –Satellite nations are nations that are dependent upon a stronger power. –The Soviet satellite nations were Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and East Germany.
What about Berlin? During the Cold war, there were many “hot spots”. The earliest hot spot was Berlin. At the end of World War II, Germany was divided into four occupation zones (American, British, French, and Soviet). The Soviets controlled the eastern part of Germany, the western countries controlled the western part of Germany. The capital Berlin, deep within Soviet-controlled territory, was also divided into four occupation zones.
Divided Berlin 1948 – Britain, France, and America unite their occupation zones to promote peace and German recovery. Germany was a traditional enemy of the Soviet Union. The Soviets were against any plan to make their enemy stronger. How did the Soviets react?
Berlin Blockaded! In June 1948, the Soviets blockaded all land and water traffic into western Berlin hoping to make Britain, France, and America leave the city. (Remember Berlin was in East Germany which the USSR occupied.) In response, the United States and Great Britain began an airlift.
Berlin Airlift What’s an airlift? –a system of carrying supplies into West Berlin by plane –Day and night, British and American pilots flew in tons of food, fuel, and raw materials. How long did it last? –11 months The airlift is over. Now what? –Germany officially becomes two countries with two governments. –Bonn becomes the capital of West Germany. –East Berlin becomes the capital of East Germany. –West Berlin remains a democratic stronghold, surrounded by communism.
The Berlin Wall Kennedy - I am a Berliner - Ich Bin Ein Berliner Kennedy - I am a Berliner - Ich Bin Ein Berliner Berliners didn’t like living under communism. Luckily, West Berlin and freedom were just across the street! About 3 million people fled to West Berlin looking for political freedom and better lives. The East German government wanted it to stop. In August 1961, East Germany built a 103 mile wall between East and West Berlin. Guarded by Soviet troops, it became a symbol of the split between western and eastern Europe. Many East Germans continued to risk death by escaping over the wall.