3Heterotrophs must get energy by eating Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food.Heterotrophs must get energy by eatingautotrophs or other heterotrophs.Decomposers, aka saprobes, are heterotrophsthat recycle dead organisms by breaking themdown.
6Classification the grouping of information or objects based on Taxonomy is the science of groupingand naming organisms.Classification the grouping ofinformation or objects based onsimilarities.
7We only know about a fraction of the organisms that exist or have existed on Earth.Taxonomists give a unique scientific name toeach species they know about whether it’s alivetoday or extinct.The scientific name comes from one of two“dead” languages – Latin or ancient Greek.Why use a dead language?
15There are at least 50 common names for the animal shown on the previous 7 slides.Common names vary according to region.Soooo……why use a scientific name?
16Binomial Nomenclature a two name system for writing scientific names.The genus name is written first (always Capitalized). The species name is written second (never capitalized). Both words areitalicized if typed or underlined if hand written.Example: Felis concolor or F. concolorWhich is the genus? The species?
17"Formal" scientific names should have a third part, the authority "Formal" scientific names should have a third part, the authority. The authority is not italicized or underlined.The authority is written as an abbreviation of the last name of the person responsible for naming the organism. Since Carolus Linnaeus was the first person to name many plants, the L. for Linnaeus is very common in plant scientific names.An example is Quercus alba L.
18Phylogeny, the evolutionary history of an organism, is the cornerstone of a branch of biology called systematic taxonomy.Systematics, as systematic taxonomy is commonly called, is the study of the evolution of biological diversity.
19A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that shows a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms. It does not show the actual evolutionary history of organisms.Why a hypothesis?
33Cladistics - is a relatively new system of phylogenetics classification that uses shared derived characters to establish evolutionary relationships. A derived character is a feature that apparently evolved only within the group under consideration.
35There are three basic assumptions in cladistics: Organisms within a group are descended from a common ancestor.There is a bifurcating pattern of cladogenesis.Change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time.
36A phylogenetic tree based on a cladistic analysis is called a cladogram. What derived character is shared by all the animals on the cladogram on the next slide?
38The acacia and itsants are an exampleof coevolution. Eachinfluences the othersevolution.Can you think of anyother examples ofcoevolution?
39Punctuated Equilibrium “instead of a slow, continuous movement, evolution tends to be characterized by long periods of virtual standstill ("equilibrium"), "punctuated" by episodes of very fast development of new forms”The "punctuated equilibrium" theory of Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould was proposed as a criticism of the traditional Darwinian theory of evolution…what is it called?
40The Dichotomous KeyA key is a device for easily and quickly identifyingan unknown organism.The dichotomous key is the most widely used type in biological sciences.The user is presented with a sequence of choices between two statements, couplets, based on characteristics of the organism. By always making the correct choice, the name of the organism will be revealed.
43• Domain Archaea The Three Domains Domain Bacteria Domain Eukarya Includes newly discovered cell typesContains 1 kingdom – the ArchaebacteriaDomain BacteriaIncludes other members of old kingdom MoneraHas 1 kingdom – the EubacteriaDomain EukaryaIncludes all kingdoms composed of organisms madeup of eukaryotic cells– Protista– Fungi– Animalia– Plantae
44A group at any level is a taxon. The major classification levels, from most general to most specific(several of these have subdivisions)A group at any level is a taxon.
45Categories within Kingdoms Kingdoms are divided into groups called phylaPhyla are subdivided into classesClasses are subdivided into ordersOrders are subdivided into familiesFamilies are divided into generaGenera contain closely related speciesSpecies is uniqueCategories within Kingdoms