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Classification of Organisms

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Presentation on theme: "Classification of Organisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classification of Organisms
Biology Chapter 17

2 Classifying Organisms
Taxonomy: the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms Taxon: a group within a taxonomic system Aristotle: classified organisms into two groups Plants and animals Why isn’t this useful?

3 Carolus Linnaeus Devised system of grouping organisms into hierarchical categories Using form and structure Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species

4 Binomial Nomenclature
Two part naming system (scientific name) Use genus and species name Written in italics with genus name capitalized In Latin because it is an unspoken language, so it never changes Example Humans: Homo sapiens

5 Systematics Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species
Phylogenetic Diagram (phylogenetic tree) Looks like a family tree and has branching pattern that indicates how closely related subset taxa are thought to be

6 Cladistics Cladistics
A system the uses shared characteristics and derived characters as the only criteria for grouping Shared character: a feature that all members in the group have in common Derived character: a feature that evolved only within the group under consideration

7 Cladistics Clad: used to describe a group of organisms that includes an ancestor and all of its descendants Cladogram: Diagram Molecular Cladistics: looks at derived amino acids at each position in a protein

8 Three Domains of Life Domain Bacteria Prokaryotic Single-celled
Have a cell wall Heterotrophic and autotrophic Ex: bacteria

9 Three Domains of Life Domain Archaea Prokaryotic
Most live in harsh environments Have cell walls Unicellular Heterotrophic and autotrophic

10 Three Domains of Life Domain Eukarya Have eukaryotic cells
Includes kingdoms plants, animals, fungi, and protists

11 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Eukaryotic
Not plants, animals or fungi Most are unicellular Some multicellular but lack tissue organization Autotrophic or heterotrophic

12 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotic Heterotrophic
Unicellular and multicellular Absorb their food through extracellular digestion

13 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic Muclticellular
Most are autorophic

14 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic
Develop from embryos

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