Presentation on theme: "Classification. Classification of Living Organisms Identified by traits Organize life’s diversity – Over 1.7 million species on Earth Taxonomy Naming."— Presentation transcript:
Classification of Living Organisms Identified by traits Organize life’s diversity – Over 1.7 million species on Earth Taxonomy Naming and classifying organisms Scientific Nomenclature
Carl Linnaeus 1750, the binomial nomenclature 2 word system that includes the genus and species Genus represents the “noun” Species represents the “adjective” Scientific name No two different species have the same name
Rules for Using Scientific Names 2 latin or latin-like terms All members of the genus share the genus name Second term is descriptive, species Genus is capitalized and species lower case Both terms italicized or underlined
Linnaean system Classified all plants and animals Organisms are grouped based on their similarities in their form and structure Eight basic levels of modern classification
Domain Kingdom – encompasses large groups Phylum Class Order Family Genus – uniquely shared traits within a family Species – unique group of organisms united by heredity or interbreeding
Humans Classification Domain Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Primates Family Homidae Genus Homo or Homo Species sapiens or sapiens
Phylogenetics (Systemics) Ancestral relationships between species. Created a “family tree” that links ancestor and descendant across 1000s of generations Judging relatedness; grouping organisms by similarities can be subjective.
Cladistics Analysis that infers ancestral relationship between species (phylogenetics) through comparison of shared characteristics Objective way to sort relatedness; – Morphology – molecular make-up – order and time of existence
Illustrating Relationships Phylogenetic tree Constructing Cladograms – Organisms are grouped together through the identification of shared derived characteristic. Derived – evolved in one group but not in the other – All groups that arise from one point are related by a single ancestral lineage. Shared characteristics between different groups of organisms.
Kingdoms and Domains pg 433 Carl Linnaeus had created a way to catalogue organisms with binomial nomenclature – Plants and Animals – Needed more detail From 2 to 6 kingdoms; – Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia Cell type, cell walls, body type, nutrition, and genetics Divided into 3 Domains; Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
Prokaryote or Eukaryote Archaea and Bacteria Eubacteria and Archaebacteria – No true nucleus or organelles – Unicellular, autotroph or heterotroph Eukarya Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia – Complex cells, true nucleus and organelles – Unicellular or multicellular – Heterotroph or autotroph – With or without cell walls (cellulose or chitin)