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Click on a lesson name to select. Organizing Life’s Diversity Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains.

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Presentation on theme: "Click on a lesson name to select. Organizing Life’s Diversity Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Click on a lesson name to select. Organizing Life’s Diversity Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms

4 Early Systems of Classification  Biologists use a system of * to organize information about the diversity of living things. The History of Classification Organizing Life’s Diversity Section 1

5 Aristotle’s System  More than 2000 years ago, Aristotle developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Aristotle classified organisms as *. The History of Classification Section 1

6 Organizing Life’s Diversity  Animals were classified according to the presence or absence of *.”  Animals were further grouped according to their *.  Plants were classified by *. The History of Classification Section 1

7 Linnaeus’s System Organizing Life’s Diversity  Linnaeus’s system of classification was the first formal system of *. The History of Classification Section 1

8 Binomial Nomenclature Organizing Life’s Diversity  Linnaeus’s method of naming organisms, called *.  The first part is the genus name, and the second part is the specific epithet, or specific name, that identifies the species. The History of Classification  Biologists use scientific names for species because common names vary in their use. Section 1

9  When writing a scientific name, scientists use these rules: Organizing Life’s Diversity  The first letter of the genus name always is capitalized, but the rest of the genus name and all letters of the specific epithet are lowercase.  If a scientific name is written in a printed book or magazine, it should be italicized.  When a scientific name is written by hand, both parts of the name should be underlined.  After the scientific name has been written completely, the genus name will be abbreviated to the first letter in later appearances (e.g., C. cardinalis). The History of Classification Section 1

10 Taxonomic Categories Organizing Life’s Diversity  The taxonomic categories used by scientists are part of a nested-hierarchal system.  Each category is contained within another, and they are arranged from broadest to most specific. The History of Classification Section 1

11 Species and Genus Organizing Life’s Diversity  *called a taxa.  A genus (plural, genera) is *. The History of Classification Section 1

12  A family is the next higher taxon, consisting of similar, related genera. Family Organizing Life’s Diversity The History of Classification Section 1

13 Higher Taxa Organizing Life’s Diversity  An order contains *.  A class contains *.  A phylum or division contains *.  The taxon of related phyla or divisions is a *.  The * is the broadest of all the taxa and contains one or more kingdoms. The History of Classification Section 1

14 Typological Species Concept Modern Classification Organizing Life’s Diversity  Aristotle and Linnaeus thought of each species as a distinctly different group of organisms based on physical similarities.  Based on the idea that species are unchanging, distinct, and natural types. Section 2

15 Biological Species Concept Organizing Life’s Diversity  The biological species concept defines a species as a group of organisms that is able to *. Modern Classification Section 2

16 Phylogenic Species Concept Organizing Life’s Diversity  Phylogeny is the *.  The phylogenic species concept defines a species as a cluster of organisms that is distinct from other clusters and shows evidence of a pattern of ancestry and descent. Modern Classification Section 2

17 Organizing Life’s Diversity Modern Classification Section 2

18 Characters  To classify a species, scientists construct patterns of descent by using characters. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Characters *. Modern Classification Section 2

19 Morphological Characters  Shared morphological characters suggest that species are related closely and evolved from a recent common ancestor. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Analogous characters are those that have the *.  Homologous characters might perform different functions, but show *. Modern Classification Section 2

20 Birds and Dinosaurs Organizing Life’s Diversity  Compare birds and dinosaurs:  Hollow bones  Theropods have leg, wrist, hip, and shoulder structures similar to birds.  Some theropods may have had feathers. Modern Classification Section 2

21 Biochemical Characters Organizing Life’s Diversity  Scientists use biochemical characters, such as *, to help them determine evolutionary relationships among species.  *. Modern Classification Section 2

22 Organizing Life’s Diversity  The similar appearance of chromosomes among chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans suggests a shared ancestry. Modern Classification Section 2

23 * Organizing Life’s Diversity  Scientists use * to compare the DNA sequences or amino acid sequences of genes that are shared by different species. Modern Classification Section 2

24 Organizing Life’s Diversity  The differences between the genes indicate the *.  The *, the more time that has passed since divergence. Modern Classification Section 2

25 The Rate of Mutation is Affected Organizing Life’s Diversity Modern Classification  Type of mutation  Where the mutation is in the genome  Type of protein that the mutation affects  Population in which the mutation occurs Section 2

26 Phylogenetic Reconstruction Organizing Life’s Diversity  Cladistics *.  Scientists consider two main types of characters when doing cladistic analysis.  An ancestral character is found within the *.  Derived characters are present members of one group of the line but not in the common ancestor. Modern Classification Section 2

27 Cladograms Organizing Life’s Diversity  The greater the number of derived characters shared by groups, the more recently the groups share a common ancestor. Modern Classification Section 2

28 Grouping Species  The broadest category in the classification used by most biologists is the domain. Domains and Kingdoms Organizing Life’s Diversity  The most widely used biological classification system has *.  The three domains are *  The six kingdoms are *. Section 3

29 Domain Bacteria  Eubacteria are *. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Eubacteria are a diverse group that can survive in many different environments. Domains and Kingdoms Classifying Using Biotechnology Section 3

30 Domain Archaea  Archaea are thought to be more ancient than bacteria and yet more closely related to our eukaryote ancestors. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Archaea are diverse in shape and nutrition requirements.  They are called * because they can live in extreme environments. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

31 Domain Eukarya  All eukaryotes are classified in Domain Eukarya. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Domain Eukarya contains Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

32 Kingdom Protista Organizing Life’s Diversity  Protists are classified into three different groups—plantlike, animal-like, and funguslike. Domains and Kingdoms  Protists are *. Section 3

33 Kingdom Fungi Organizing Life’s Diversity  A fungus is a unicellular or multicellular eukaryote that absorbs nutrients from organic materials in its environment.  Members of Kingdom Fungi are *. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

34 Kingdom Plantae  Members of Kingdom Plantae form the base of all terrestrial habitats. Organizing Life’s Diversity  All plants are multicellular and have cell walls composed of cellulose.  Most plants are autotrophs, but some are heterotrophic. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

35 Kingdom Animalia  All animals are *. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Animal organs often are organized into complex organ systems.  They live in the water, on land, and in the air. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

36 Viruses—An Exception  A virus is a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat. Organizing Life’s Diversity  Viruses *.  Because they are *, they usually are not placed in the biological classification system. Domains and Kingdoms Section 3

37 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 1 On what characteristics did Linnaeus base his system of classification? A. red blood and bloodless B. evolutionary history C. behavior and habitat D. body structure Organizing Life’s Diversity Chapter Diagnostic Questions Chapter

38 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 2 Organizing Life’s Diversity Chapter Diagnostic Questions What is the term for a named group of organisms? A. genus B. family C. phylum D. taxon Chapter

39 1.A 2.B 3.C 4.D CDQ 3 Organizing Life’s Diversity Chapter Diagnostic Questions Determine which scientific specialist studies classifications and identifies new species. A. ecologist B. evolutionary geneticist C. systematist D. biologist Chapter


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