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Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics

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1 Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics
Modern Classification sorts organisms into groups shows relationships among them Phylogeny Systematics Cladistics

2 Classification and Diversity
- tries to organize all living things into groups - show how they evolved from earlier life forms - show relationships to other present forms - changes with new information Early Systems Aristotle - by environment: land, water, air John Ray (1600s) - in related groups - short description for each species

3 Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish botanist, 1700s
used physical appearance and structure 7 taxa: from broad to specific Kingdom – Phylum – Class – Order - Family – Genus – Species Binomial Nomenclature - two names for each Genus: group to which it belongs species: 1-2 word description Ex. Homo sapiens

4 Evidence for Classification
Many forms: - physical appearance and structure (morphology) - other present organisms - fossils - molecules, especially DNA, RNA, proteins - embryology patterns Various organizing diagrams

5 Evidence for Evolutionary Relationships
Physical appearance and structure Resemblance to other organisms

6 Fossils Embryo Development

7 Phylogeny and Systematics
Taxonomy – sort and name organisms Phylogeny - Evolutionary history of a group of organisms - shows common ancestry Systematics - combines taxonomy with evolution - organized way to study diversity and relationships

8 Taxonomy – sorting and naming
Species – individual type of organism Genus – group of related species Scientific Name = Genus & species Family – related genera Order – related families Class – related orders Phylum – related classes Kingdom – related phyla Domain – Three Domain System

9 Phylogeny – evolution history

10 Simplest relationships make the most likely phylogenetic trees

11 Phylogeny -compares structure
Homologous – similar structure, with adaptations - shows common ancestry

12 Analogous structures Evolved in similar environments
NOT shared ancestry

13 Cladistics Tries to show evolutionary relationships based on physical traits shared by different groups of organisms

14 Cladograms More shared traits = more closely related Derived character
– more recent branch from evolutionary line Primitive character - older, shared by more groups

15 Molecular Systematics
Compares molecules to find relationships

16 Ribosomal RNA Have shown that fungi are more closely related to humans than to green plants Student Mushroom Tulip Common ancestor Figure 15.9B

17 DNA – Compare genes and DNA sequences
- many similar sequences = closely related

18 More shared genes = closer relationship
Human Chimpanzee Gorilla Orangutan Common ancestor Figure 15.9C

19 Molecular Clocks Some regions of DNA or proteins
Change at a fairly consistent rate Can date evolutionary events

20 Five- Kingdoms System Prokaryotes are in one Kingdom – Monera
(Classification is a work in progress!) Prokaryotes are in one Kingdom – Monera Eukaryotes are grouped in separate kingdoms Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists

21 Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms, based on their chemical nature
Six-Kingdom System Bacteria are divided into two kingdoms, based on their chemical nature

22 Three Domain System One domain for all eukaryotes
One domain for each of the two kinds of bacteria

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