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What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics, and Taxonomy?

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Presentation on theme: "What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics, and Taxonomy?"— Presentation transcript:

1 What is the difference between Phylogeny, Cladistics, and Taxonomy?
Taxonomy is the biological science that deals with arranging and naming groups and organisms. Early system based on morphological similarities and differences. Today mostly based on known phylogenetic relationships and similarities in DNA

2 Phylogeny refers to the development of a group, particularly through evolutionary lines.  

3 Cladistics is a study in which groups (species, etc) are arranged on a phylogenetic tree according to the TIME at which they arose from other groups. For example, on a cladistic-type diagram, and earlier-evolving species would form a lower branch on the tree than one that evolved later.

4 Science of Classification
Taxonomy Science of Classification

5 Classification The process of putting similar things into groups.
Taxonomy – The science of classifying organisms

6 History of Classification:
4000 BC – Aristotle Creates first written classification scheme Two Groups: Animal Group – anything that lived on land, in the water, or in the air Plant Group – based this on their different stems

7 History of Classification:
Many different systems, most of which were extremely complicated Names were based on common names (confusion) Names also based on long scientific definitions

8 What is this animal?

9 Puma, Cougar, Mountain Lion, etc.

10 History of Classification:
1700’s – Carolus Linnaeus Establishes system for classifying and naming organisms Based on the structural similarities of the organisms Binomial Nomenclature – 2 Name naming system Created groups called Taxa or Taxon Each Taxon is a category into which related organisms are placed Approximately 2.5 million kinds of organisms identified

11 Modern Day Levels of Classifcation

12 Modern Day Levels of Classification
Man Box Elder Tree Bobcat Canadian Lynx Kingdom Animalia Plantea Phylum Chordata Anthophyta Class Mammalian Dicotyledonae Mammalia Mammlia Order Primates Sapindales Carnivora Family Hominidae Aceracae Felidae Genus Homo Acer Lynx Species sapiens nugundo rufus camadensis

13 Modern Taxonomy: Evidence used to classify into taxon groups
Embryology Chromosomes / DNA Biochemistry Physiology Evolution Behavior

14 Binomial Nomenclature
A system of scientific naming using two names for every organism Use the genus and the species name For Example: Human Scientific Name Genus species Homo sapiens

15 Felis concolor

16 Rules for Binomial Nomenclature:
Name is in Greek or Latin First word is the genus Second word is the species Words are italicized or underlined First word capitalized Second word lower case

17 5 Kingdom System Kingdom Monera Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia

18 Kingdom Monera Prokaryotes (no nuclei)
Heterotrophic (have to ingest food) and Autotrophic (can make own food) Anaerobic and Aerobic Aquatic, terrestrial, and in air Mostly asexual Mostly non-motile Examples: Bacteria, eubacteria, archebacteria

19 Kingdom Protista Eukaryotes (have nuclei) Heterotropic and autotrophic
Unicellular Mostly aquatic Mostly asexual Motile and non-motile Examples: protozoa, slime molds, algae

20 Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotes Heterotrophic Mostly terrestrial
Asexual and sexual Non-motile Example: Mushrooms, bread molds, yeasts

21 Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular Autotrophic
Mostly terrestrial Asexual and sexual Non-motile Example: mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants

22 Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic
Terrestrial and aquatic Sexual (a few asexual) Motile (a few non-motile) Examples: sponges, jellyfish, fish, mammals, arthropods, reptiles, birds

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