Presentation on theme: "Organizing the Diversity of Life"— Presentation transcript:
1 Organizing the Diversity of Life ClassificationOrganizing the Diversity of Life
2 ClassificationThe grouping of objects or information based on similarities
3 TaxonomyBranch of biology dealing with the identification, classification, and nomenclature of organisms.
4 How to Organize? Plants Animals Trees Land Shrubs Air Herbs Water Problem: Birds, bats, and insects were grouped togetherAristotle ( B.C.E.)
5 Classification based on physical and structural similarities Carolus Linnaeus ( )Created binomial nomenclature (2 word naming system)1st word = Genus (genera if plural) = a group of similar species2nd word = specific epithet = SpeciesScientific name = Genus + specific epithet e.g. Homo sapiens
6 Writing Species Names Rules for writing species names Latin is the language of scientific names (Latin is no longer spoken, so it does not change)Italicize in print and underline when hand written1st letter of the genus is CAPITALIZED & 1st letter of specific epithet is lowercase
7 Writing Species NamesCanis latrans = CoyoteCanis lupus = Grey wolf
14 Species – organisms that look alike and successfully interbreed Genus – A group of similar species which that have similar features and are closely relatedFamily – A group of similar generaOrder – A group of similar familiesClass – A group of similar ordersPhylum – A group of similar classesKingdom – A group of similar phyla
16 Six Kingdoms Eubacteria · Prokaryotic · True bacteria · RNA is simple · Have true cell walls· UnicellularArchaebacteria· RNA more complex
17 Six Kingdoms Protista · Eukoryotic · Autotrophs and heterotrophs · Lacks organs systems· Lives in moist environments· Unicellular or multicellularFungi· Eukaryotic· Heterotrophs· Absorbs nutrients from organic material in its environment
19 Evolutionary Classification To study history one must know in advance that one is attempting something fundamentally impossible, yet necessary and highly important. To study history means submitting to chaos and nevertheless retaining faith in order and meaning.-Father Jacobus
21 Evolutionary Classification Phylogeny - evolutionary history of a group of organismsCladistics – The study of evolutionary relationships between groups to construct their family treeDerived characters – Characteristics which appear in recent parts of a lineage but NOT in its older members (Evolutionary innovation)
22 Evolutionary Classification Most recent common ancestor --The ancestral organism from which a group of descendants arose.
27 Character -- Heritable trait possessed by an organism Clade -- a group of organisms which includes the most recent common ancestor and all of the descendants of that most recent common ancestor.Cladogram -- A diagram, resulting from a cladistic analysis, which depicts a hypothetical branching sequence of lineages leading to the taxa under consideration.Nodes --The points of branching within a cladogram.
28 ingroup -- In a cladistic analysis, the set of taxa which are hypothesized to be more closely related to each other than any are to the outgroup.Parsimony -- the simplest evolutionary hypothesis; it explains the data in the most economical way