Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Energetics. Do Now-QUIZ on separate sheet of paper- do not talk or use notes Place your HW on your desk 1.Analyze why Carbon is unique 2.Define polymer.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Energetics. Do Now-QUIZ on separate sheet of paper- do not talk or use notes Place your HW on your desk 1.Analyze why Carbon is unique 2.Define polymer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energetics

2 Do Now-QUIZ on separate sheet of paper- do not talk or use notes Place your HW on your desk 1.Analyze why Carbon is unique 2.Define polymer 3.What is the monomer of proteins? 4.Analyze a disaccharide?

3 Carbon Properties Carbon has 4 valence electrons; therefore, Carbon can bond to 4 other elements Carbon also readily bonds to other C, forming chains and rings=variety of organic compounds


5 Carbon Bonding Organic compounds- C attached to H Inorganic compounds- typically do not have C, but if C, not attached to H

6 Carbon’s 4 valence electrons 8 valence electrons= stable C has 4 valence (outer) electrons, so C readily forms 4 covalent bonds with other elements Straight Chains, Branched Chains, Rings

7 Carbon forms single, double, triple bonds

8 Functional Groups Influence bonding properties and other properties of molecules. Hydroxyl -OH Carboxyl -COOH Amino –NH 2 Phosphate- POOOOHH

9 Large Carbon Molecules Start with: monomers Simple molecules Monomer+ monomer= polymer Repeated, linked units Large polymers= macromolecules

10 Monomers link to form polymers

11 Condensation Reactions When monomers link to form polymers, a H 2 O molecule is released Hydrolysis Reactions When polymers are broken down into monomers, H 2 O is added

12 Condensation: building polymers

13 Hydrolysis: breaking down polymers

14 Thinking Map Create a thinking map

15 Do Now Differentiate between condensation rxns and hydrolysis rxns Trace the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration

16 Macromolecules 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids/Fats 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic Acids Recall: Remember Dust Bowl article?

17 1. Carbs Monomer=saccharide Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen 1C:2H:1O Energy or structure Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides

18 A. Monosaccharides Simple sugar; monomer Carbon:Hydrogen:Oxygen 1:2:1 (CH 2 O) n n is 3-8 EX (CH 2 O) 6  C 6 H 12 O 6 Most common: glucose, fructose, galactose Glucose= energy for cells Fructose= in fruits; sweetest Galactose= in milk

19 Glucose, fructose, galactose C 6 H 12 O 6 Same chemical formula but different structure= isomers


21 B. Disaccharides Two monosaccharides combined through a condensation rxn “double sugar” Ex: fructose + glucose = sucrose mono + mono = di

22 C. Polysaccharides Complex 3 or more monosaccharides Ex: animals store glucose as glycogen (chains of glucose in muscles and liver)

23 Polysaccharides cont. Plants store glucose as STARCH Plants also have cellulose- strength and rigidity of plant cells

24 2. Proteins Made of CHON mostly Formed by linking amino acids Enzymes, hair, horns, skin, etc

25 Amino Acids 20 Structure: central C, carboxyl group (-COOH), amino group (-NH 2 ), side R-chain Main difference is in R group: shape

26 Amino acid

27 Amino Acid

28 Amino acid: note R group

29 Amino acids

30 Peptide Amino acid covalently bound to another amino acid

31 Polypeptide Long chain of amino acids protein

32 Polypeptide formation

33 Enzymes RNA or protein Biological catalysts- speed up chemical reactions by lowering activation energy

34 Enzyme-Substrate Complex 1.Enzyme fits like lock and key to substrate at enzyme’s active site 2.Enzyme changes shape so bonds in substrate are weakened 3.Enzyme releases products 4.Enzyme is unchanged and can be used over and over again Temp and pH can change enzyme shape and enzyme won’t fit on substrate  - no chemical rxn

35 3. Lipids Monomer=fatty acid Large, nonpolar, organic Include: triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, and pigments

36 Fatty Acids Unbranched Carbon chains Have a carboxyl group (COOH) at one end COOH end is hydrophilic-attracted to water The Hydrocarbon end is nonpolar Hydrophobic “hates water”

37 Saturated VS Unsaturated


39 Triglycerides (fats) 3 fatty acids + glycerol

40 Fats Saturated High melting points Solid at room temp EX: butter, fats in red meat Unsaturated Soft at room temp Inside of seeds-energy and Carbon source for plant embryo (endosperm)

41 Phospholipids 2 fatty acids attached to a glycerol Head=glycerol= loves water Tails=fatty acids = hate water Make up cell membrane: lipid bilayer

42 Phospolipids


44 Wax Long fatty acid chain + long alcohol chain Waterproof Ex: cuticle; earwax

45 Steroids Hormones testosterone Cholesterol

46 4. Nucleic Acids Store and transport information in the cell. Monomer=nucleotides Phosphate group, 5-C sugar, ring-shaped Nitrogenous base 2 types DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid RNA Ribonucleic acid

47 Phosphate group, 5-C sugar, ring-shaped Nitrogenous base


49 Nucleotide

50 DNA Determines characteristics of organisms and directs cell functions

51 RNA Stores and transfers information from DNA which is essential to making proteins

52 Thinking Map Create a thinking map of the 4 macromolecules and their subsets

Download ppt "Energetics. Do Now-QUIZ on separate sheet of paper- do not talk or use notes Place your HW on your desk 1.Analyze why Carbon is unique 2.Define polymer."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google