12 Nucleic Acids Monomers = Nucleotides Phosphate group Nitrogenous base Five carbon sugar
13 Proteins – Amino Acids (monomers) Carboxyl groupAmino groupR group – distinguishesOne from another
14 CarbohydratesComposed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom.Exist as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.Primary source of energy in living thingsChemically tested by use of Benedict’s Reagent (monosaccharides) and Iodine Test (polysaccharides)
15 Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Simple Sugar, monomer of carbohydratesBond together to form Disaccharides and PolysaccharidesGlucose, Fructose, GalactoseDisaccharideDouble SugarFormed through Condensation Synthesis of two monosaccharidesSucrose = Glucose+ FructoseLactose = Galactose + GlucoseMaltose = Glucose + GlucosePolysaccharideStarchFormed through Condensation Synthesis of three or more monosaccharides
16 Starch Two basic forms Glycogen Cellulose Long coil Storage polysaccharide in animalsCelluloseHighly branchedStorage polysaccharide in plantsCellulose
17 Proteins Composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Composed of many monomers called amino acids to form polypeptide chainsMost enzymes are proteinsChemically tested by Biuret’s test.
18 Lipids Large nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water. Have a higher ration of carbon and hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms.Store energyChemically tested using Sudan III or spot testComposed of long fatty acid chains linked to glycerolSaturated = single bondsUnsaturated = double bondPolyunsaturated = all double or triple bonds
19 Fatty acids have a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic end
20 Complex lipids Phospholipid - make up the cell membrane Wax - a structural lipid which forms a protective coat oncellsSteroids - composed of four fused carbon rings; make up hormones, cholesterol
21 Nucleic AcidsVery large complex molecules that store important information in the cellComposed of chains of nucleotidesPhosphate groupSugarNitrogenous baseDNA or RNA
22 Enzymes RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts Are essential for the functioning of any cellEnzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and its specific substrate (the reactant being catalyzed)
24 The enzyme is unchanged and is available to be used again. The change in the enzymes shape weakens some chemical bonds in Substrate and reduces the activation energy of the reaction so reactants can become products.The enzyme is unchanged and is available to be used again.Enzymes are temperature and pH specificOutside of optimal numbers and the enzymechanges shape, substrate will not fit.
25 Biological reactions + Enzymes In living things, chemical reactions occur between large, complex biomolecules.Many of these reactions require large activation energies, the amount of energy needed for the reaction to occur.Many of these reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life without the help of enzymes.