2 Carbon Compounds Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Monomer:MonosaccharideMade up of:Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen(H:O in 2:1 ratio)LipidsGlycerol andFatty Acids(H:O not in 2:1 ratio)ProteinsAmino AcidCarbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, NitrogenNucleic AcidsNucleotide1) 5 Carbon sugar, 2) phosphate group 3)nitrogenous baseCarbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus
3 Organic CompoundsAll compounds are either organic, containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen, or inorganic.The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of life.
4 Carbon Bonding: Carbon has four valence electrons Needs eight electrons to be stableCarbon readily forms four covalent bonds with other atoms, including carbon
5 Carbon BondingCarbon can form straight chains, branched chains, or ringsLeading to a great variety of organic compounds
6 Carbon Bonding Single Bond Sharing 2 electrons A single line Double BondSharing 4 electronsTwo parallel linesTriple BondSharing 6 electronsThree parallel lines
7 Large Carbon Molecules: In many carbon compounds, the molecules are built up from smaller, simpler molecules known as monomers.Monomers can bind to one another to form complex molecules known as polymers.Large polymers are also called macromoleculesThe process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks - polymerization
8 Biological ReactionsWater is the most important inorganic compound in the body and it participates in two biological reactions:HydrolysisDehydration Synthesis
9 HydrolysisBreaking down polymers by adding a water molecule.
10 Hydrolysis Breaking down polymers by adding a water molecule. C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
11 Dehydration Synthesis Build up large molecules by releasing a molecule of water.
12 Dehydration Synthesis Build up large molecules by releasing a molecule of water.C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 C12H22O11 + H2O
13 Molecules of LifeThe four main classes of organic compounds essential to all living things are made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but in different ratios giving them different properties.
14 Carbohydrates:Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with H to O in a 2:1 ratioMonosaccharides are a single sugar - monomerSource of energyCan be in straight or ring form-ose ending for sugarsGlucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)
15 Carbohydrates:Glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of atoms = isomersMolecular formula = C6H12O6 (hexoses)C5H10O5 (pentoses)
16 Carbohydrates: Type of Sugar Name of Sugar Description of Sugar PentoseriboseFound in RNAdeoxyriboseFound in DNAHexoseglucoseIn blood; cell’s main energy sourcefructoseIn fruit; sweetest of monomersgalactoseIn milk
17 Carbohydrates Disaccharides are double sugars Two monosaccharides condense to form disaccharidesFormed by dehydration synthesisMolecular formula = C12H22O11
18 Carbohydrates Condensation of Monosaccharides A disaccharide is produced by joining2 monosaccharide (single sugar) units.In this animation, 2 glucose molecules are combined using a condensation reaction, with the removal of water. Glucose molecules joining to form a disaccharideCondensation of Monosaccharides
19 2 single sugars that join to form the disaccharide Common DisaccharidesName of Disaccharide2 single sugars that join to form the disaccharideDescription of SugarSucroseGlucose + FructoseTable SugarLactoseGlucose + GalactoseIn milkMaltoseGlucose + GlucoseIn malt
20 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides many sugars: General formula – (C6H10O5)n plus H2O (n = # monomers)Formed by dehydration synthesisLong chains of glucose molecules
21 Name of Polysaccharide Carbohydrates:Name of PolysaccharideDescription of SugarGlycogen(animal starch)Animal polysaccharide - stores excess sugarStored in liver and musclesMuscle contraction & movementBroken down into glucose and released into blood for quick energyStarchPlant polysaccharideStores excess sugarCelluloseGives plants strength and rigidityMajor component of wood and paperComponent of cell wall
22 Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Waxes Elements – carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (not a 2:1 H:O ratio)Do not dissolve in waterLipids contain a large number of C-H bonds which store more energy than C-O bonds in carbohydratesMonomers: glycerol and fatty acid
23 Lipids:Fatty Acids:Fatty acids are unbranched C-chains (12-28 C) with a carboxyl group (acid) at one endThe carboxyl end is polar and attracted to water – hydrophilicThe hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and does not interact with water – hydrophobic
25 Lipids: Three major roles of lipids in living organisms: Lipids can be used to store energyLipids are important parts of biological membranesLipids are waterproof coverings
26 Saturated & Unsaturated Fatty Acids Carbon atoms with 4 atoms covalently bondedAll single bondsHigh melting pointsroom temperatureEx.) animal fat, shorteningUnsaturated Fatty AcidsCarbon not bonded to the maximum # of atomsThere are double bond(s)polyunsaturatedroom temperaturePrimarily in plantsEnergy storage in animals
40 Denaturing Proteins:Protein that has lost its active conformation, or shapeDenaturing caused by:TemperatureSolute (salt) ConcentrationpH
41 Nucleic AcidsLarge, complex organic compounds that store information in cells, using a system of four compounds to store hereditary information, arranged in a certain order as a code for genetic instructions of the cell.Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen,Oxygen, Nitrogen, PhosphorusMonomer: NucleotidePhosphate group(Phosphoric Acid)5-carbon (pentose) sugar(Deoxyribose or Ribose)Nitrogenous Base
43 Nucleic AcidsNucleotides combine, in DNA to form a double helix, and in RNA a single helixThe sides of the ladder are madeup of the phosphate group andthe sugar and the rungs of theladder are nitrogen basesExamples of Nucleic Acids:1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)Nucleic Acids and Dehydration Synthesis