Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Carbon Compounds Section 2.3.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Carbon Compounds Section 2.3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Carbon Compounds Section 2.3

2 Carbon Compounds Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins
Monomer: Monosaccharide Made up of: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (H:O in 2:1 ratio) Lipids Glycerol and Fatty Acids (H:O not in 2:1 ratio) Proteins Amino Acid Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Nucleic Acids Nucleotide 1) 5 Carbon sugar, 2) phosphate group 3)nitrogenous base Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Phosphorus

3 Organic Compounds All compounds are either organic, containing carbon bonded to hydrogen and oxygen, or inorganic. The chemistry of carbon is the chemistry of life.

4 Carbon Bonding: Carbon has four valence electrons
Needs eight electrons to be stable Carbon readily forms four covalent bonds with other atoms, including carbon

5 Carbon Bonding Carbon can form straight chains, branched chains, or rings Leading to a great variety of organic compounds

6 Carbon Bonding Single Bond Sharing 2 electrons A single line
Double Bond Sharing 4 electrons Two parallel lines Triple Bond Sharing 6 electrons Three parallel lines

7 Large Carbon Molecules:
In many carbon compounds, the molecules are built up from smaller, simpler molecules known as monomers. Monomers can bind to one another to form complex molecules known as polymers. Large polymers are also called macromolecules The process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks - polymerization

8 Biological Reactions Water is the most important inorganic compound in the body and it participates in two biological reactions: Hydrolysis Dehydration Synthesis

9 Hydrolysis Breaking down polymers by adding a water molecule.

10 Hydrolysis Breaking down polymers by adding a water molecule.
C12H22O11 + H2O  C6H12O6 + C6H12O6

11 Dehydration Synthesis
Build up large molecules by releasing a molecule of water.

12 Dehydration Synthesis
Build up large molecules by releasing a molecule of water. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6  C12H22O11 + H2O

13 Molecules of Life The four main classes of organic compounds essential to all living things are made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, but in different ratios giving them different properties.

14 Carbohydrates: Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with H to O in a 2:1 ratio Monosaccharides are a single sugar - monomer Source of energy Can be in straight or ring form -ose ending for sugars Glucose (C6H12O6) Ribose (C5H10O5)

15 Carbohydrates: Glucose, galactose, and fructose all have the same molecular formula but differ in the arrangement of atoms = isomers Molecular formula = C6H12O6 (hexoses) C5H10O5 (pentoses)

16 Carbohydrates: Type of Sugar Name of Sugar Description of Sugar
Pentose ribose Found in RNA deoxyribose Found in DNA Hexose glucose In blood; cell’s main energy source fructose In fruit; sweetest of monomers galactose In milk

17 Carbohydrates Disaccharides are double sugars
Two monosaccharides condense to form disaccharides Formed by dehydration synthesis Molecular formula = C12H22O11

18 Carbohydrates Condensation of Monosaccharides
A disaccharide is produced by joining 2 monosaccharide (single sugar) units. In this animation, 2 glucose molecules are combined using a condensation reaction, with the removal of water. Glucose molecules joining to form a disaccharide Condensation of Monosaccharides

19 2 single sugars that join to form the disaccharide
Common Disaccharides Name of Disaccharide 2 single sugars that join to form the disaccharide Description of Sugar Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Table Sugar Lactose Glucose + Galactose In milk Maltose Glucose + Glucose In malt

20 Carbohydrates Polysaccharides many sugars:
General formula – (C6H10O5)n plus H2O (n = # monomers) Formed by dehydration synthesis Long chains of glucose molecules

21 Name of Polysaccharide
Carbohydrates: Name of Polysaccharide Description of Sugar Glycogen (animal starch) Animal polysaccharide - stores excess sugar Stored in liver and muscles Muscle contraction & movement Broken down into glucose and released into blood for quick energy Starch Plant polysaccharide Stores excess sugar Cellulose Gives plants strength and rigidity Major component of wood and paper Component of cell wall

22 Lipids: Fats, Oils, and Waxes
Elements – carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (not a 2:1 H:O ratio) Do not dissolve in water Lipids contain a large number of C-H bonds which store more energy than C-O bonds in carbohydrates Monomers: glycerol and fatty acid

23 Lipids: Fatty Acids: Fatty acids are unbranched C-chains  (12-28 C) with a carboxyl group (acid) at one end The carboxyl end is polar and attracted to water – hydrophilic The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and does not interact with water – hydrophobic

24 Fatty Acid General Structure Saturated (single bonds)
Unsaturated (double bonds)

25 Lipids: Three major roles of lipids in living organisms:
Lipids can be used to store energy Lipids are important parts of biological membranes Lipids are waterproof coverings

26 Saturated & Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Carbon atoms with 4 atoms covalently bonded All single bonds High melting points room temperature Ex.) animal fat, shortening Unsaturated Fatty Acids Carbon not bonded to the maximum # of atoms There are double bond(s) polyunsaturated room temperature Primarily in plants Energy storage in animals

27 Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids:

28 Lipids Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) are formed by a glycerol molecule bonding to fatty acid(s) formed by dehydration synthesis

29 Dehydration Synthesis:

30 Triglycerides Three fatty acids attached to glycerol

31 Formation of a Triglyceride

32 Phospholipids Two fatty acids joined to a glycerol
Makes up cell membrane - phospholipid bilayer

33 Proteins Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Monomer: amino acid (20 different kinds) Each amino acid has a central carbon atom bonded to 4 other atoms or functional groups

34 Bond that joins amino acids (protein) = peptide bond
Proteins Bond that joins amino acids (protein) = peptide bond

35 Formation of a peptide bond
amino acid 1 amino acid 2 dipeptide water

36 Proteins

37 Functions of Proteins Control the rate of reactions
Regulate cell processes Form important cellular structures Transport substances into or out of cells Help to fight disease

38 Enzymes and Substrates:
Enzyme + Substrate = ES complex  EP complex = Enzyme + product(s)

39 Enzymes (Proteins)

40 Denaturing Proteins: Protein that has lost its active conformation, or shape Denaturing caused by: Temperature Solute (salt) Concentration pH

41 Nucleic Acids Large, complex organic compounds that store information in cells, using a system of four compounds to store hereditary information, arranged in a certain order as a code for genetic instructions of the cell. Elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus Monomer: Nucleotide Phosphate group (Phosphoric Acid) 5-carbon (pentose) sugar (Deoxyribose or Ribose) Nitrogenous Base

42 Nitrogenous Bases There are FOUR Nitrogen bases

43 Nucleic Acids Nucleotides combine, in DNA to form a double helix, and in RNA a single helix The sides of the ladder are made up of the phosphate group and the sugar and the rungs of the ladder are nitrogen bases Examples of Nucleic Acids: 1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Nucleic Acids and Dehydration Synthesis

Download ppt "Carbon Compounds Section 2.3."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google