Presentation on theme: "A. Organic Compounds = compounds containing carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen,"— Presentation transcript:
A. Organic Compounds = compounds containing carbon atoms that are covalently bonded to other carbon atoms and other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. 1. Carbon forms bonds easily because it has 4 valence electrons. 2. Carbon atoms can bond to other carbon atoms, forming chains that are almost unlimited in length. 3. All living things contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P).
B. Attack of the Macromolecules! (“Giant Molecules”) 1. Monomers (building blocks of many carbon compounds) – created when C, H, O, N, P bond together to form small molecules. 2. Polymer – large compounds that are formed by joining monomers together.
a. The process of making a polymer is called Polymerization. b. Condensation/Dehydration Reaction – reaction linking monomers into polymers, with the loss of water.
c. Hydrolysis – reaction breaking down polymers into monomers with the addition of water, reversing a condensation reaction. d. Chemical reactions are fueled by an energy molecule of the cell, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP).
3. Some polymers are also called biomolecules or macromolecules. a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Proteins d. Nucleic Acids http://www.brainpop.com/health/bodysystems/bodychemistry/
B. Carbohydrates (made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, in a 1:2:1 ratio) 1. Commonly called sugars and starches. 2. Monomers (subunits) are monosaccharides, also known as simple sugars. a. Monosaccharides = 1 sugar b. Example of Monosaccharide: glucose, fructose, galactose
c. Disaccharides = 2 monosaccharides joined d. Example of Disaccharide: sucrose = glucose and fructose joined e. Example of Disaccharide: maltose = glucose and glucose joined
f. Polysaccharides = many monosaccharides joined g. Example of Polysaccharide: glycogen = stores excess sugar in animals h. Example of Polysaccharide: cellulose = makes rigid plant cell walls
3. Functions: a. Store and release quick energy b. Provide structural support Example: Exoskeletons of insects 4. Food examples: a. Bread, Potatoes, Beans, Pasta, Cereal, Fruit
B. Lipids (made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen; large non-polar molecules that DON’T dissolve in water) 1. Commonly called fats, oils, steroids, and waxes 2. Monomers (subunits) are glycerol (hydrophilic “head”) with fatty acid chains (hydrophobic “tail”) Glycerol Fatty Acid
a. Triglycerides – 3 fatty acids joined to glycerol (alcohol with a carboxyl group – COOH)
b. Phospholipids – 2 fatty acids joined to glycerol (alcohol with carboxyl group – COOH) - Example: cell membrane (barrier between inside and outside of cell)
c. Waxes – many fatty acids joined to glycerol (alcohol with a carboxyl group – COOH) - Example: earwax, surface of some plant leaves
3. Functions: a. Store long-term energy b. Insulation c. Make up cell membranes 4. Food examples: a. Oil, Butter, Steak, Bacon http://www.brainpop.com/health/nutrition/fats
C. Proteins (made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen) 1. Monomers (subunits) are amino acids; only 20 different amino acids exist. a. Structure of an amino acid: - Amino Group (end) - Carboxyl Group (end) - R- Group (middle) *changes* TryptophanSerine Leucine
b. Dipeptides – 2 amino acids joined by a peptide bond c. Polypeptides – many amino acids joined by a peptide bond
d. Levels of Protein Structure (Very complex!) - Primary (1’) – arrangement of amino acids - Secondary (2’) – folding/coiling of amino acids
- Tertiary (3’) – folding of the whole protein - Quaternary (4’) – polypeptides attracted together
2. Functions: a. Transport oxygen to blood stream (hemoglobin) b. Provide immunity (antibodies) c. Muscle Contractions d. Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnlULOjUhSQ
4. Other Protein Examples a. An enzyme is a protein acting as a biological catalyst. b. Catalyst – special proteins that speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to start the reaction. - Lowering the activation energy allows cells to do work more efficiently, because it requires less energy to do its work. - If the cell requires less energy, it can react more rapidly, therefore, enzyme to help to increase the rate of reaction. c. Enzyme names end in “- ase”. - Examples: Catalase, Sucrase, Lactase
d. Characteristics of an Enzyme - Enzymes act on specific substrates. - Substrate – substance that the enzyme breaks down - Each substrate fits in to the active site of the enzyme. (Like a lock & key.) - Active Site – region where enzyme substrate bind together
- Product – the substrate broken down after the enzyme has acted on it - ENZYMES ARE NOT CHANGED OR USED IN THE REACTION! - Enzymes go on to carry out the same reactions again and again.
- Denature – when an enzyme changes shape due to a change in temp., pH, or other factor preventing binding
D. Nucleic Acids (made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous) 1. Monomers (subunits) are called nucleotides. a. Made up of a 5-carbon sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base.
2. Function: a. Store genetic information in cells 3. Examples: a. DNA and RNA