2 April 7, 1933Shortly after Hitler took power in Germany, he ordered all “non-Aryans” to be removed from government jobsThis order was one of the first moves in a campaign for racial purity that eventually led to the HolocaustHolocaust: the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more than half of whom were Jews
3 Anti-SemitismNot only victims of the Holocaust but were center of the Nazis’ targetAnti-Semitism: hatred of JewsFor decades many Germans looking for a scapegoat had blamed the Jews as the cause of their failuresWhat failures?
4 Nuremberg LawsIn 1935, the Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property.To make it easier for the Nazis to identify them, Jews had to wear a bright yellow Star of David attached to their clothing.
5 Nuremberg WorksheetWhat is the problem with the Nuremberg Laws?
6 Kristallnacht November 9-10th, 1938 Kristallnacht means “Night of Broken Glass”Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across GermanyAround 100 Jews were killed and hundreds more injuredSome 30,000 Jews were arrested and hundreds of synagogues were burned
7 KristallnachtWho was blamed for all of the broken glass in the streets, synagogues burned to the ground, and injuries?
10 Floods of Jewish Refugees Kristallnacht caused many German Jews to try and flee to another countryNazis tried to speed up the process of emigrationJews fleeing Germany had trouble finding nations that would accept themThe United States only took about 100,000 refugees of “exceptional merit”
11 Why would countries not be willing to accept a lot of Jews trying to escape from Germany?
12 Who were those “exceptional merit” refugees allowed to enter the United States?
18 Plight of St. Louis German ocean liner passed Miami in 1939 740 of the 943 passengers had U.S. immigration papers, however the U.S. Coast Guard would not allow anyone to disembark in AmericaThe St. Louis Sent back to Germany
19 Hitler’s “Final Solution” Obsessed with a desire to rid Europe of its Jews, Hitler imposed what he called the “Final Solution”A policy of GenocideGENOCIDE: the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population
20 Hitler’s “Final Solution” What caused Hitler to get rid of an entire population?(Hint: Think of his goals)
21 Hitler’s “Final Solution” His “solution” rested on the belief that Aryans were a superior people and that the strength and purity of this “master race” must be preservedTo accomplish this Hitler condemned them to slavery and deathJews were not the only group viewed as inferior or unworthy or as “enemies of the state”What other groups would be deemed “inferior”?
22 Inferior Races Gypsies Freemasons—because they were charged as supporters of the “Jewish conspiracy” to rule the worldJehovah’s Witnesses— they refused to join the army or salute HitlerHomosexualsMentally deficientMentally illPhysically disabledIncurably ill
23 GypsiesMany Gypsy groups have preserved elements of their traditional culture, including an itinerant existence and the Romany language. Many tend to reject traditional life styles and are nomadic
25 Jehovah’s WitnessesJehovah’s Witnesses are followers of which believe that the end of the present world system of government is near, that all other Churches and religions are false or evil, that all war is unlawful, and that the civil law must be resisted whenever it conflicts with their Church's own religious principles
26 FreemasonsA member of the Free and Accepted Masons, an international fraternal and charitable organization with secret rites and signs.
27 Hitler’s “Final Solution” Implemented in Poland with special Nazi death squadsElite Nazi “security squadrons” (SS)The SS rounded up Jews—men, women, children, and babies—and shot them on the spot
29 Forced Relocation Jews were ordered to relocate to ghettos Segregated Jewish areas in certain polish citiesNazis typically sealed off the ghettos from the rest of the city with barbed wire and stone walls
30 Life in the Ghettos Bodies lined the streets Factories located near the ghetto had free labor from the Jews living in the ghettoJews published underground newspapersSet up secret schools to educate Jewish childrenTheater and music groups put on shows within the ghetto
33 Concentration Camps Concentration camps: labor camps Families were often separated and sometimes the separation would be foreverLife in the camps was a cycle of hunger, humiliation, and work that almost always ended in death
34 Concentration CampsThey were forced to do intensive manual labor from dawn to dusk, seven days a weekIf they were too weak to work they were killedSome jobs included burning dead bodies of other prisoners or digging ditches for bodies
38 Concentration CampsFood rations for inmates were often small
39 Concentration CampsPrisoners were crammed into small wooden barracks in which they put about 1,000 prisoners intoTheir beds were often planks of wood that had mice, fleas, rats and other rodents living among the prisoners
40 Final StageEarly 1942 A meeting held in Wannsee, Hitler’s top officials agreed to begin a new phase of the mass murder of JewsTo mass slaughter and starvation they would add a third method of killingMurder by poison gas
41 Mass ExterminationThe Nazis could not kill the Jews fast enough to satisfy themGermans built six death camps in PolandEach camp had huge gas chambers in which as many as 12,000 people could be killed in a day
42 SelectionWhen prisoners arrived at death camps they were paraded by several SS doctors that would separate those strong enough to work from those who would die that dayBoth groups were told to leave all their belongings behind with a promise that they would be returned later
43 SelectionThose destined to die were led into a room outside the gas chamber and were told to undress and showerTo add to the deception some were given soapWhen led into the chambers cyanide gas poured from vents on the wall as cheerful music played
44 Methods Gassing was not the only method of extermination Prisoners were:ShotHangedInjected with poisonOthers died as a result from horrible medical experiments
45 Test Subjects Some were used as medical experiments by camp doctors These victims were injected with deadly germs in order to study the effect of disease on different groups of peopleMany were used to test methods of sterilizationSterilization was of great interest to some Nazi doctors as they searched for ways to improve the master race
46 Survivors Some Jews survived the horrors of the concentration camps Those who made it out of the camps alive were changed forever by what they had witnessed