Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR LOOMS During the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically execute 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.”"— Presentation transcript:
1 WORLD WAR LOOMSDuring the Holocaust, the Nazis systematically execute 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.”
2 Learning Objectives: Section 3 - The Holocaust 1. Explain the reasons behind the Nazis’ persecution of the Jews and the problems facing Jewish refugees.2. Describe the Nazis’ “final solution” to the Jewish problem and the horrors of the Holocaust.3. Identify and describe the profound and lasting effects of the Holocaust on survivors.
3 The Holocaust The Persecution Begins Jews Targeted Kristallnacht 3 SECTIONThe HolocaustThe Persecution BeginsJews TargetedEurope has long history of anti-SemitismGermans believe Hitler’s claims, blame Jews for problemsNazis take away citizenship, jobs, property; require Star of David• Holocaust—murder of 11 million people, more than half are JewsKristallnacht• Kristallnacht—Nazis attack Jewish homes, businesses, synagoguesAbout 100 Jews killed, hundreds injured, 30,000 arrestedContinued . . .NEXT
5 April 1933 (Der Sturmer Issue #12) On April 7, 1933 Hitler ordered all non-Aryans removed from government jobsThus began the systematic campaign of racial purification that eventually led to the Holocaust – the murder of 11 million people across Europe (more than half of whom were Jews)Title: “Away with him”The long arm of the Ministry of Education pulls a Jewish teacher from his classroom.April 1933 (Der Sturmer Issue #12)
6 KRISTALLNACHT (NIGHT OF BROKEN GLASS) On November 9-10, 1938 Nazi Storm Troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues across GermanyOver 100 Jews were killed, hundreds more were injured, and 30,000 Jews arrestedAfterward, the Nazis blamed the Jews for the destruction
7 Hundreds of Jewish homes and businesses were torched during Kristallnacht
8 A Flood of Jewish Refugees 3SECTIONcontinued The Persecution BeginsA Flood of Jewish Refugees1938, Nazis try to speed up Jewish emigrationFrance has 40,000 refugees, Britain 80,000; both refuse moreU.S. takes 100,000, many “persons of exceptional merit”Americans fear strain on economy, enemy agents; much anti-SemitismThe Plight of the St. LouisCoast Guard prevents passengers on St. Louis from disembarkingShip forced to return to Europe; most passengers killed in HolocaustNEXT
9 SOME JEWS FLEDEinsteinAs a result of increasing violence, many German Jews fled the countryHowever, few countries were willing to take in Jewish refugeesThe U.S. accepted 100,000 refugees including Albert Einstein, author Thomas Mann, architect Walter Gropius and Theologian Paul TillichGropiusTillich
10 THE PLIGHT OF THE ST. LOUIS Many Americans feared Jews would take jobs at a time when unemployment was already high.One example of the indifference to the plight of the German Jews can be seen in the case of the St. Louis
11 THE ST. LOUIS RETURNS HOME This German ocean liner passed Miami in 1939The U.S. coast guard followed the ship to prevent anyone from disembarking in AmericaThe ship returned to Europe – more than ½ of the 943 passengers were later killed in the Holocaust
12 GR: The Holocaust 1. worried about fueling anti-Semtism; Didn’t want more
13 JEWS LOSE RIGHTSJews in Germany were subject to increasingly restrictive rightsIn 1935 – Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their citizenship, jobs and propertyAlso in 1935 Jews forced to wear bright yellow stars to identify themselves
14 GR: The Holocaust2. Stripped Jews of their civil rights and property if they tried to leave Germany;Forced Jews to wear Jewish stars swen to their clothing
15 (Placard reads, "Germans, defend yourselves, do not buy from Jews) JEWS TARGETEDJews were the central target of the HolocaustAnti-Semitism had a long history in many European countriesFor decades Germany looked for a scapegoat for their problemsMany Germans blamed Jews for their difficulties(Placard reads, "Germans, defend yourselves, do not buy from Jews)
16 GR: The Holocaust3. Gangs of Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues
17 Hitler’s “Final Solution” 3SECTIONHitler’s “Final Solution”The Condemned• Hitler’s Final Solution—slavery, genocide of “inferior” groups• Genocide—deliberate, systematic killing of an entire population• Target Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, unfit Germans• Nazi death squads round up Jews, shoot themForced RelocationJews forced into ghettos, segregated areas in Polish citiesSome form resistance movements; others maintain Jewish cultureContinued . . .NEXT
18 GR: The Holocaust 4. Widespread anti-Semitism; Desire to avoid competition for jobs during the Depression;Fear of “enemy agents”
19 HITLER’S FINAL SOLUTION In 1939 only about 250,000 Jews remained in GermanyBut other nations that Hitler occupied had millions moreObsessed with his desire to “rid Europe of Jews,” Hitler imposed what he called the Final Solution
22 THE FINAL SOLUTIONThe Final Solution – a policy of genocide that involved the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population – rested on the belief that Aryans were superior people and that the purity of the “Master Race” must be preservedHitler was responsible for the murder of more than half of the world’s Jewish population
23 HITLER’S HATRED WENT BEYOND JEWS Hitler condemned to death and slavery not only Jews but other groups that he viewed as inferior, unworthy or as “enemies of the state”This list included Gypsies, Slavs, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Africans, Chinese, homosexuals, handicapped, mentally ill and mentally deficient
24 Total Deaths from Nazi Genocidal Policies Group DeathsEuropean Jews ,250,000Soviet prisoners of war ,000,000Polish Catholics ,000,000Serbians ,000Germans (political, religious, and resistance) ,000Germans (handicapped) ,000Homosexuals ,000Jehovah’s Witnesses ,500
25 GR: The Holocaust 5. All non-aryans; Mentally retarded Jews The insane CommunistSocialistLiberalsGypsiesFreemasonsJehovah’s WitnessesHomosexualsMentally retardedThe insaneThe disabledThe terminally illPolesUkrainiansRussians
26 JEWISH GHETTOS IN POLAND Jews were also ordered into dismal, overcrowded ghettos in various Polish citiesFactories were built alongside the ghettos where people were forced to work for German industryMany of these Jews were then transferred to concentration camps (labor camps) deep within Poland
27 3SECTIONcontinued Hitler’s “Final Solution”Concentration CampsMany Jews taken to concentration camps, or labor camps- families often separatedCamps originally prisons; given to SS to warehouse “undesirables”Prisoners crammed into wooden barracks, given little foodWork dawn to dusk, 7 days per weekThose too weak to work are killedNEXT
28 The final stage began in early 1942 Dachau, gas chamberHitler’s program of genocide against Jews took place primarily in 6 Nazi death camps located in PolandThe final stage began in early 1942The Germans used poison gas to more quickly exterminate the Jewish populationEach camp had huge gas chambers that could kill as many as 12,000 per day
29 IMAGES FROM A NIGHTMARE Some of these images are disturbing
30 The main entrance of Auschwitz Extermination Camp, with its infamous motto "Work Makes One Free"
31 Buchenwald prisoners in nearby woods just before their execution
32 Jewish women from the Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine, which held roughly 1,700 Jews. Some are holding infants as they are forced to wait in a line before their execution by Germans and Ukrainian collaborators.
33 Over 2 million children were killed during the Holocaust
34 The Final Stage Mass Exterminations 3 SECTIONThe Final StageMass ExterminationsGermans build death camps; gas chambers used to kill thousandsOn arrival, SS doctors separate those who can workThose who can’t work immediately killed in gas chamberAt first bodies buried in pits; later cremated to cover up evidenceSome are shot, hanged, poisoned, or die from experimentsContinued . . .NEXT
35 A German policeman shoots individual Jewish women who remain alive in the ravine after the mass execution. (1942)
36 Children subjected to medical experiments in Auschwitz
37 A truckload of bodies at Buchenwald concentration camp
38 At Dachau concentration camp, two U. S At Dachau concentration camp, two U.S. soldiers gaze at Jews who died on board a death train
39 A Nazi about to shoot the last Jew left alive in Vinica, Ukraine.
40 The Survivors 3 About 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacres SECTIONcontinued The Final StageThe SurvivorsAbout 6 million Jews killed in death camps, massacresSome escape, many with help from ordinary peopleSome survive concentration camps- survivors forever changed by experienceNEXT
42 Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me." "They came for the Communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Communist.Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the Trade Unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Trade Unionist. Then they came for the Catholics, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me."- Pastor Martin Niemoller
43 Elie Wiesel, a camp survivor “Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust never.”Elie Wiesel, a camp survivor
44 GR: The Holocaust6.The Nazis shot, beat, starved, gassed, and hung their victims;They also worked them to death, injected them with poison, and deliberately killed them in grisly “medical” experiments.