Presentation on theme: "5 Stages involved in GE Isolation Cutting Ligation and Insertion"— Presentation transcript:
1 5 Stages involved in GE Isolation Cutting Ligation and Insertion TransformationCloning & Expression
2 1. Isolation (a) Isolation of a specific gene from donor e.g. human Cells broken openGenetic probe addedReveals position of the gene of interestGenetic probeThe first step involves breaking open the cells of the donor to release the DNA and isolate the gene of interest e.g. insulin producing gene.Cells are broken open using chemicals and enzymes e.g. washing up liquidDonor DNA is extractedGenetic probe is addedA DNA probe consists of a small fragment of DNA labelled with an enzyme, a radioactive tag or a flurescent dye tag.The probe will bind to a complementary DNA sequence by base pairing.Identifying the presence and location of the gene of interestPosition of gene of interestDonor DNA
3 1. Isolation (b) Isolation of plasmid from a bacterial cell The DNA from the bactterial cell is released.A bacterial cell contains a circular loop of DNA called a plasmid.The plasmid is isolated from the bacterial cell.The plasmid will act as a vector for carrying a new gene i.e. the gene from the donor will be inserted into the plasmid DNA..
4 2. CuttingHuman DNA and plasmid DNA are cut open using the same restriction enzymesFrom Leaving Cert BiologyThe donor DNA and plasmid DNA are cut using enzymes called restriction enzymes.Restriction enzymes recognise specific sequence of basesAct as a molecular scissors to cut the DNA strand within the recognition sequence.The donor DNA and plasmid DNA are cut using the same restriction enzymes.Bacteria use restriction enzymes to defend themselves against attacks from bacterial viruses. The enzymes cut invading viral DNA and render it harmless.
5 Recap: Restriction enzymes DNA is cut into fragments using restriction enzymes.One RE cuts at GAATTCDNA from two different organisms cut with GAATTC RE, cut ends from both sources are complimentary but bind weakly to each other
6 3. LigationThe target gene is placed in the DNA of the plasmid/cloning vector and joins on to itWhen cut plasmids are mixed with cut human DNA, different combinations result.DNA ligase is used to form strong bonds within the recombinant DNAFrom Leaving Cert Biology
7 Recap: DNA Ligase Gets foreign DNA to join to DNA in cloning vector Can only work if both sources of DNA have been treated with the same restriction enzymes as cut ends will be complementary to each otherSections of human DNA can be combined with plasmid DNA which has been cut open.DNA Ligase forms recombinant DNAFrom Leaving Cert Biology
8 4. Transformation Uptake of recombinant DNA into cell Vast majority of cells Some cells Some cellsSpecial techniques will identify the small number of bacteria with the target geneFrom Leaving Cert Biology
9 5. Cloning & Gene Expression Cloning: Identical copies of the bacteria with the target gene are producedUniversality of genetic codePlasmid will produce the polypeptide coded for by the donor DNAExpression: Getting the organism with the recombinant DNA to produce the desired protein