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Restriction Enzymes. Remember what we know about DNA. What is the monomer of DNA? What is the monomer of DNA? How do bases pair? How do bases pair? What.

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Presentation on theme: "Restriction Enzymes. Remember what we know about DNA. What is the monomer of DNA? What is the monomer of DNA? How do bases pair? How do bases pair? What."— Presentation transcript:

1 Restriction Enzymes

2 Remember what we know about DNA. What is the monomer of DNA? What is the monomer of DNA? How do bases pair? How do bases pair? What kind of bond is used? What kind of bond is used?

3 Restriction Enzymes Aka Restriction Endonucleases Aka Restriction Endonucleases What macromolecule do you think they are made of? What macromolecule do you think they are made of? –Right, they are PROTEINS that cut strands of DNA at specific nucleotide sequences

4 Restriction Enzymes There are many different restriction enzymes that each cut DNA at different nucleotide sequences There are many different restriction enzymes that each cut DNA at different nucleotide sequences Most will cut the DNA with a staggered cut Most will cut the DNA with a staggered cut Usually occurs at a palindrome Usually occurs at a palindrome 5'GAATTC 3'CTTAAG

5 Sticky ends The staggered cuts leave the DNA with end pieces “sticking off” The staggered cuts leave the DNA with end pieces “sticking off” –We call these “sticky ends” –These exposed N-bases will want to join with other complimentary exposed bases

6 What if??? What do you predict could happen if two pieces of DNA are cut with the same restriction enzyme??? What do you predict could happen if two pieces of DNA are cut with the same restriction enzyme??? –YES! They will have the same “sticky ends” –How could we use this???

7

8 Restriction Enzymes -Kinds Sticky End- already discussed Sticky End- already discussed Blunt End Blunt End –These cut the DNA straight across and create blunt ends: –CCCGGG GGGCCC GGGCCC

9 Products generated by restriction enzymes COHESIVE END CUTTERS (staggered cuts): Enzyme Recognition Site Ends of DNA After Cut EcoRI5’…GAATTC…3’5’…GAATTC…3’ 3’…CTTAAG…5’3’…CTTAA G…5’ PstI5’…CTGCAG…3’5’…CTGCA G…3’ 3’…GACGTC…5’3’…GACGTC…5’ BLUNT END CUTTERS (direct cuts): Enzyme Recognition Site Ends of DNA After Cut HaeIII5’…GGCC…3’ 5’…GG CC…3’ 3’…CCGG…5’ 3’…CC GG…5’

10 Restriction enzymes are named according to the following nomenclature: Ex: EcoRI E = genus Escherichia co = species coli R = strain RY13 I = first enzyme isolated In case you were curious …

11 Why would anyone go through the trouble of cutting DNA??? One reason… One reason… –Recombinant DNA  Break down the word…what do you think recombinant means? –Other reasons…DNA fingerprinting, gene therapy…

12 DNA that has been cut from one strand of DNA and then inserted into the gap of another piece of DNA that has been broken. DNA that has been cut from one strand of DNA and then inserted into the gap of another piece of DNA that has been broken. –The host DNA is often a bacterial cell such as E coli.

13 Bacteria are often used in biotechnology because they have plasmids Bacteria are often used in biotechnology because they have plasmids A plasmid is a circular A plasmid is a circular piece of DNA that exists apart from the apart from the chromosome and chromosome and replicates independently of it. replicates independently of it.

14 The Plasmid is then called a VECTOR What is a vector? What is a vector? –Something that is used to transfer genes into a host cell Ex’s Ex’s –Bacterial plasmids plasmids –Viruses

15 So how do I isolate a gene of interest? Use a restriction enzyme!!! (duh!) Use a restriction enzyme!!! (duh!)

16 What next??? Once the gene is isolated, how do we join it with the organism’s DNA? Once the gene is isolated, how do we join it with the organism’s DNA? 1. Cut the organism’s DNA with the same restriction enzyme…why? –The sticky ends will naturally be attracted to each other 2. Add DNA LIGASE: an enzyme that seals the fragments together

17 What is this organism now called? Transgenic Organism- organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA (rDNA) from a different organism Transgenic Organism- organisms that contain functional recombinant DNA (rDNA) from a different organism

18 What’s the point? Recombinant DNA has been gaining importance over the last few years, and will become more important as genetic diseases become more prevalent and agricultural area is reduced. Below are some of the areas where Recombinant DNA will have an impact: Recombinant DNA has been gaining importance over the last few years, and will become more important as genetic diseases become more prevalent and agricultural area is reduced. Below are some of the areas where Recombinant DNA will have an impact: –Better Crops (drought & heat resistance) –Recombinant Vaccines (i.e. Hepatitis B) –Production of clotting factors –Production of insulin –Production of recombinant pharmaceuticals –Plants that produce their own insecticides –Germ line and somatic gene therapy

19 RECAP Steps for making a transgenic organism: Steps for making a transgenic organism: 1.Locate and isolate the gene of interest 2.Cut out the gene and cut the plasmid using the appropriate restriction enzyme

20 3. Insert the desired gene into the plasmid matching up the sticky ends

21 4. Use the enzyme DNA ligase to seal up the sticky ends

22 5. Transfer the vector in the host organism where it will replicate 6. Host organism produces the protein coded for by the recombinant DNA

23 Insulin Production


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