After Pearl Harbor The Japanese take over most of East Asia. This included the Philippines where 12,000 U.S. soldiers under the command of Douglass MacArthur were forced to surrender. MacArthur left for Australia to avoid capture but vowed, “I shall Return.”
Bataan Death march US Prisoners captured in the Philippines (along with captured Filipinos) are forced to march 65-miles to a prison camp. Known as the Bataan Death march. Japanese are unusually cruel during march. They beat, kick, bayonet, and shoot stragglers. 600 US soldiers and over 6,000 Filipinos die.
Why Japanese Treat Prisoners so Bad Their culture—believed one should fight to the death. It was dishonorable to surrender. Therefore did not respect those that did surrender. Also believed that the US was a decadent & mongrel race and that their race was pure (and superior to others).
Other Japanese Atrocities. Rape of Nanking —kill 300,000 and rape 20,000 and pillage. Bomb Chinese civilians in cities. Conduct medical experiments on prisoners.
Force women in the countries they conquer to be “comfort women” (i.e.-forced sex slaves).
The Doolittle Raid 16 B-25’s under command of Captain James Doolittle stage a bombing raid on Tokyo. April 18, 1942 Does not accomplish much militarily, but is good for U.S. morale.
Battles of Coral Sea & Midway Naval battles fought in the middle of the Pacific. US wins both. Coral Sea stopped Japan’s advance on Australia. Midway saw the US regain naval superiority in the Pacific. Both battles were historic in that they were fought by planes from aircraft carriers and the ships themselves never engaged.
US Pacific Strategy Island Hopping —taking strategic islands but bypassing (skipping) others. As the US gets closer, they use captured islands as airbases to bomb Japan. 2-pronged attack —Admiral Chester Nimitz from Pearl Harbor and MacArthur from Australia.
Review What was the Bataan Death March and why did it serve as effective propaganda for the U.S.? What was the Doolittle Raid? Why did the Japanese treat their prisoners so bad? What were “Comfort Women”? What was the significance of the battles of Coral Sea and Midway? What was the name of the U.S. strategy in the Pacific?
Battle of Guadalcanal August 7 1942 Small island in the Solomon Islands. First U.S land attack in the Pacific. U.S Marines take the island at high cost. Japan’s first defeat on land.
The Philippines Gen. MacArthur led his forces toward the Philippines. Capture the islands surrounding the Philippines. Large Naval battle at Leyte Gulf (largest in history)—Japanese navy is crippled. Japanese resort to Kamikaze attacks.
Battle of Iwo Jima Feb. 16, 1945 Volcanic island in the Pacific Vital island for air base Japanese heavily entrenched/ U.S suffers heavy losses (20,000 most ever for marines). Japan fights to the end.
The Battle of Iwo Jima Airbases on Iwo Jima let America B-29’s bomb Tokyo. Bombers had trouble hitting targets in Japan. Gen LeMay decides to drop Napalm bombs.
Firebombing Japan March 9, 1945: America bombers drop Napalm bombs over Tokyo. 80,000 Japanese dead 250,000 buildings destroyed Japan refuses to surrender
Battle of Okinawa April 1, 1945 Okinawa is an island south of Japan. Japan fights from the rugged mountains. U.S wins-- 7,600 Americans die. Japan suffers 110,000 deaths Japanese troops commit suicide.
Review What was the name for US pacific strategy? A = Island Hopping What was name of forced march of US and Filipino prisoners in which many were killed by the Japanese? A = Bataan Death March What was significance of the battles of Corral Sea and Midway?
Mo Review What was 1 st successful US invasion of a Japanese held island? A = Guadalcanal Women whom the Japanese forced to be sex slaves for their soldiers were called what? A = comfort women What were the 2 things that wee significant about the battle of Leyte Gulf? A = end of Japanese navy & largest naval battle in history What were Kamikazes?