American History Chapter 24-3 The War in the Pacific
Japanese Advances After Pearl Harbor Late 1941: Drove Am. forces from Guam & Wake Island. Captured Hong Kong from the British. Took control of the Dutch East Indies. – Japanese soldiers were highly trained and skilled.
Japanese in the Philippines General Douglas MacArthur led the American defenses in the Philippines. Dec. 1941 the Japanese overpowered MacArthur’s small force. – The Americans retreated to Bataan Peninsula. – Hoped for rescue ships but they never arrived. – MacArthur was extricated but 10,000 American troops & 60,000 Filipino troops surrendered. – General MacArthur vowed,”I shall return.”
Philippines Continued: Bataan Death March: Hungry & sick soldiers forced to march for 5 days & nights to a Japanese prison camp. – Thousands died on the 90 mile journey.
U.S. Military Strikes Back April 18, 1942: Lt. Col. James Doolittle led 16 American bombers on a raid of Tokoyo. May, 1942: Battle of Coral Sea – U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz defeated the Japanese with two aircraft carriers. – 1 st time the Japanese advance had been stopped.
More Good News Battle of Midway: The Japanese hoped to lure in the rest of the Pacific U.S. Navy & destroy it. – The U.S. had broken the Japanese code & knew their plan. – June 4, 1942: The Americans at Midway Island held off the attacking Japanese planes. – American planes followed the Japanese planes back to their carriers. – Destroyed 3 of 4 Japanese carriers. – The USS Yorktown was lost in the battle. – Japan, no longer, held the advantage at sea.
Allied Island Hopping Feb. 1943: The Allies retook Guadalcanal. 1944: The Allies gained much ground in the SW Pacific. – American factories gave the Allies a huge advantage. – Navajo Native Americans became code talkers. Able to pass on key info. Battle of Leyte Gulf: Huge Allied naval victory. – Japanese used kamikaze attacks by flying their aircraft into Allied ships. – Oct., 1944: General MacArthur entered the Philippines.
Moving Closer to Japan’s Homeland Battle of Iwo Jima: Most of the Japanese defenders fought to the death but Americans prevailed. – Only 750 miles from Japan. Battle of Okinawa: Again Japanese soldiers refused to surrender. – June, 1945: Okinawa was under American control. – Only 350 miles from Japan.