Presentation on theme: "The Japanese Advance. Hours after Pearl Harbor Japanese warplanes attacked Clark Field, the main American air base in the Philippines Dec. 8 Wake Island."— Presentation transcript:
Hours after Pearl Harbor Japanese warplanes attacked Clark Field, the main American air base in the Philippines Dec. 8 Wake Island and Dec. 10 Guam attacked Gen. Douglas MacArthur, commanding general and troops at Clark Field withdrew to Australia ”I Shall Return”
The Philippines Fall By May 1942 the Japanese captured 76,000 Filipinos and Americans as POWS Bataan Death March prisoners were forced to march 70 miles to a railroad and shipped to an army camp – Prisoners treated brutally – 10,000 prisoners died during the 6-12 day journey Japan’s treatment of prisoners violated the Geneva Convention POWs treated well
The Bataan Death March Open the following link, read the story, and answer the four questions http://www.u-s- history.com/pages/h1737. html
The War at Sea With the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan did not destroy the heart of the Pacific fleet: Lexington, Enterprise, and Saratoga
April 1942 American B-52s took off from aircraft carrier Hornet and flew 650 miles to Japan Lt. Colonel James Doolittle’s squadron dropped bombs on Tokyo shocked Japanese leadership and boosted Allied morale.
Battle of the Coral Sea Japanese forces moved toward Australia May 1942 American navy engaged superior Japanese fleet in the Coral Sea
Five Day Battle Resulted in a Draw U.S. lost the Lexington and the Yorktown was damaged Japan lost two aircraft carriers and most of their airplanes RESULT: Prevented Japan from invading Australia First naval combat carried out entirely by aircraft carriers were 70 miles apart
The Battle of Midway Midway was a vital island in protecting Hawaii Began on June 4, 1942 Japanese bombers struck first, BUT American warplanes counterattacked Americans sank all 4 Japanese aircraft carriers Japan lost 4 carriers, 250 planes and most of their skilled pilots THE TURNING POINT IN THE PACIFIC!!
The Battle of Guadalcanal Solomon Islands off the coast of Australia Japanese air base being built to launch attack on Australia 11,000 marines landed on island 2,200 Japanese fled into the jungle Lasted 5 months—Americans controlled waters
Island-hopping A strategy of selectively attacking enemy-held islands Oct. 1944 General MacArthur returned to the Philippines with 160,000 troops
Battle of Leyte Gulf 280 warships battled for 3 days Heavy use of kamikazes or suicide planes US Navy destroyed virtually entire Japanese navy Philippines liberated from Japan Greatest naval battle in world history!!
Iwo Jima and Okinawa Feb 1945 US marines invaded Iwo Jima, 700 miles from Japan April to June 1945—Battle of Okinawa, 350 miles from Japan – Allies victorious, but costliest engagement in the Pacific – 50,000 American troops dead
The Manhattan Project In 1939 Albert Einstein escaped from Germany to the U.S. informed FDR of Germany’s atomic capability FDR created the Manhattan Project, a top secret project to develop an atomic bomb July 16, 1945 world’s first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico desert
The Decision to Drop the Bomb Ways to end the war: – Massive invasion of Japan cost millions of Allied casualties – Naval blockade of Japan – Demonstrate the power of the bomb Harry S. Truman became President in April 1945 after FDR’s death Truman decided to drop the bomb
Japan Surrenders Aug. 6, 1945 the Enola Gay dropped a single atomic bomb on Hiroshima, a city in southern Japan – 80,000 dead and city destroyed Aug. 9 a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki Aug. 15, Americans celebrated V-J Day (Victory in Japan) Formal surrender agreement signed on Sept. 2, 1945