Presentation on theme: "Page 58 NCSCOS Goal 10. Japanese Victories -Pearl Harbor Successful Japanese attack against America -Victories in much of Pacific Japanese creating an."— Presentation transcript:
Japanese Victories -Pearl Harbor Successful Japanese attack against America -Victories in much of Pacific Japanese creating an empire in Asia and the Pacific -MacArthur retreats from the Philippines Outnumbered by the Japanese “Bataan Death March” Forced removal of American and Filipino civilians 10,000 of 76,000 die in March 15,000 more die in camp Japan violates Geneva Convention (rules of how to treat prisoners) -MacArthur pledges to return “I shall return” Americans and Filipino troops were backed up to the Bataan Peninsula General Douglas MacArthur pledges “I shall return.” He will, two years later.
The Bataan Death March Beheadings, cut throats and being casually shot were the more common and merciful actions — compared to bayonet stabbings, rapes, guttings, numerous rifle butt beatings and a deliberate refusal to allow the prisoners food or water while keeping them continually marching for nearly a week (for the slowest survivors) in tropical heat. Falling down, unable to continue moving was tantamount to a death sentence, as was any degree of protest or expression of displeasure.
America Recovers -Bombing of Tokyo April 1942 AKA Doolittle’s Raid Meant to strike back at Japan for Pearl Harbor Launch plane from aircraft carrier -Coral Sea Battle Japanese try to take Australia air power in the navy Fought by planes from carriers; Japanese were not successful -Battle of Midway, 1942 Allies knew Japan’s next target because had broken code Adm. Chester Nimitz inflicted great damage to much larger Japanese fleet Crippled the Japanese -Japan never recovered its naval power Turning point of the war in the Pacific - Allies retaking land American planes taking off from aircraft carrier. Some took off with broom handles a painted black as gun turrets to conserve fuel.
The War at Sea: The Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway USS Yorktown Sinks
Island Hopping -as the U./S. built its naval and air advantage the Japanese fortified every island Every island in the Pacific was crucial to both sides - U.S. bypasses many islands and takes weaker ones for airfields U.S. wants to fortify islands and move closer to attack Japan -Guadalcanal, 1942 Japanese defeated in brutal fighting and conditions -Philippines, 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf Allies retake, Japan on defense
Guadalcanal was America’s first land offensive of the war and its first taste of jungle warfare.. The battle lasted nearly 6 months and the island became known as the “Island of Death.” “Hell was furry red spiders as big as your fist, giant lizards as long as your leg, leeches falling from trees to suck blood, armies of white ants with bites of fire, scurrying scorpions inflaming any flesh they touched, enormous rats and bats everywhere, and rivers with waiting crocodiles. Hell was the sour, foul smell of the squishy jungle, humidity that rotted a body with hours,…stinking wet heat of dripping rain forests that sapped the strength of a man. Hell was an enemy hidden in the dark deep shadows, an enemy so fanatic that it used its own dead as booby traps.” Ralph Martin “People of the Philippines, I have returned.” General Douglas MacArthur US troops led a raid on the Japanese prison camps in the Philippines to rescue the POWs from Bataan.
High Costs -Japanese defending with every man every man sacrifices himself for country kamikaze attacks - suicide attack to crash bomb-laden planes into Allied ships -Iwo Jima, 1945 6,000 Marines die Needed as a base from which to bomb Japan Only 200 Japanese survive -Roosevelt dies -Okinawa, 1945 higher death totals Last stop before Japan 7,600 US lives lost 110,000 Japanese lives lost -warnings of what invasion would cost Mount Suribachi One US soldier called Iwo Jima an “ugly, smelly glob of cold lava squatting in a surly ocean.” This island was the most heavily defended spot on earth, with more than 20,700 Japanese troops entrenched in tunnels and caves
Manhattan Project -about 600,000 people worked in the project Most did not know what the project was intended for (not even V.P. Truman) -J. Robert Oppenheimer led the project at Los Alamos NM -some scientists urged the gov’t not to use the weapon -Truman made the decision to use the weapon on Japan Rather than risk millions of lives in a Japanese invasion
Ultimate Weapon -Before atomic weapon was used, airdrops of leaflets urged Japanese to surrender Japan warned -Japanese leaders refuse to unconditionally surrender -August, 1945 the bomber Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb over Hiroshima 43 seconds later, all buildings gone and 200,000 dead, still would not surrender -another bomb dropped on Nagasaki -Japanese surrender -V-J Day (Victory over Japan) September, 1945, WWII officially over
Rebuilding the World -Yalta Conference, 1945 meeting of the Big Three Before the end of the war, Stalin wants to divide Germany into zones (4 zones to each ally) -Creation of the United Nations Peacekeeping union created after V-E Day to prevent world wars Sets up 2 houses: General Assembly and Security Council Created at San Francisco Conference -Potsdam Conference, July 1945 division of Germany 4 sections to be occupied by major Allied nations, Berlin also divided -Nuremburg Trials German leaders tried for actions during the Holocaust war crimes several leaders executed
Occupation of Japan -General Douglas MacArthur Leader of U.S. forces in Japan -reformed Japan’s economy Japanese leaders put on trial and sentenced to death for actions Introduced free-market economy with remarkable recovery -established democratic government -guaranteed basic freedoms Even granted women’s suffrage Constitution still exists as Japan’s government “MacArthur Constitution” General Douglas MacArthur became the leader of the U.S. forces in Japan after WWII. His strategic placement will set him up for both success and failure following WWII.