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Chapter 15 Preventing Infection Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Preventing Infection Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Preventing Infection Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Infection  Infection is a major safety and health hazard.  The health team follows certain practices and procedures to prevent the spread of infection.  Infection control—the practices and procedures that protect patients, residents, visitors, and staff from infection  Infection- a disease state resulting from the invasion and growth or microbes in the body Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 2

3 Microorganisms  A microorganism (microbe) is a small living thing seen only with a microscope.  Microbes are everywhere. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 3

4 Pathogens  Some microbes are harmful and can cause infections.  They are called pathogens.  Non-pathogens are microbes that do not usually cause an infection. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 4

5 What microbes need: Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 5

6 Pathogens (harmful Microbes)  Bacteria  germs  Fungi  Mushrooms, yeasts  Mouth,Feet, Vagina  Protozoa  Blood, brain Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 6

7 Pathogens (cont)  Rickettsiae  Fleas, ticks  Rocky mountain spotted fever  Viruses  Colds, AIDS, herpes Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 7

8 Normal Flora  Microbes that live and grow in a certain area- think “it is normal for them to grow there”  Example is e-coli that normally lives in the colon. It can cause infection if it enters the urinary track or is ingested. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 8

9 Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs)  MDROs are caused by:  Prescribing antibiotics when they are not needed (over- prescribing)- giving them for viruses!  Not taking antibiotics for the length of time prescribed  Two common types of MDROs are resistant to many antibiotics.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)  Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 9

10 Systemic vs Local Infection  A local infection is in a body part.  A systemic infection involves the whole body.  The chain of infection is a process that involves a:  Source—a pathogen  Reservoir—where a pathogen can grow and multiply  Portal of exit—allows pathogen to leave the reservoir  Method of transmission—a vehicle transmits microbes  Portal of entry—where the pathogen enters the body  Susceptible host—needed for the microbe to grow and multiply Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 10

11 Chain of Infection Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 11 =source

12 Malaria Chain of Infection Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 12 source reservoir Portal of exit=bite MOT= Susceptible host Portal of entry= bite

13 Carrier, Vector, Vehicle  Carrier-transmits the disease but does not show symptoms  Human with HIV but not AIDS  Vector-a carrier that transmits disease will not have traces of the disease in immune system  Mosquitoes-malaria  Vehicle- any substance that transmits microbes  Think blood tinted with malaria Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 13

14 Susceptible hosts-young, elderly, sick, poor health care and burn, chemo, transplant patients Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 14

15 HAI-think “hospital caused it”  Healthcare-associated infection (HAI)  An HAI is an infection that develops in a person cared for in any setting where health care is given.  HAIs also are called nosocomial infections.  HAIs are caused by: Normal flora Normal flora Microbes transmitted to the person from other sources Microbes transmitted to the person from other sources Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 15

16 Definitions:  Asepsis-being free from disease producing microbes (can be medical or surgical)  Sterile- means the absence of all microbes.  Pathogens and non-pathogens  Contamination- is the process of becoming unclean. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 16

17 Infection Prevention How infections are prevented:  Asepsis Medical asepsis (clean technique)- reduces numbers-think hand hygiene, cleaning equipment, disinfection (does not kill spores- bacteria protected by hard shell) Medical asepsis (clean technique)- reduces numbers-think hand hygiene, cleaning equipment, disinfection (does not kill spores- bacteria protected by hard shell) Surgical asepsis (sterile technique)- keeps items free of all microbes. Surgical asepsis (sterile technique)- keeps items free of all microbes. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 17

18 Medical Asepsis Rules of thumb for patient care:  Supplies and equipment  Most health care supplies and equipment are disposable.  Discard single-use items after use.  A person uses multi-use items many times-there own toothbrush or hairbrush.  Do not “borrow” them for another person.  Non-disposable hospital items are cleaned, disinfected, and then sterilized. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 18

19 Surgical Asepsis Surgical Asepsis  Surgical asepsis (sterile technique) is required any time the skin or sterile tissues are entered.  If a break occurs in sterile technique, microbes can enter the body. Infection is a risk. Infection is a risk. Requires a sterile field and sterile equipment Requires a sterile field and sterile equipment Foley catheters, IV starts etc. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 19

20  Gloves   Wear gloves whenever contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, or non- intact skin is likely.  Gowns   Protect your clothes and body from contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions.   Protect against splashes and sprays.   Must completely cover you from your neck to your knees   Are used once   Are considered contaminated when wet   Are disposable and are discarded after use Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 20 Barrier Methods (PPE) Barrier Methods (PPE)

21 Standard Precautions-done for every patient, every time! Standard Precautions-done for every patient, every time!  Standard Precautions  Reduce the risk of spreading known and unknown infections  Are used for all persons whenever care is given  Prevent the spread of infection from: Blood Blood All body fluids, secretions, and excretions (except sweat) even if blood is not visible All body fluids, secretions, and excretions (except sweat) even if blood is not visible Non-intact skin (skin with open breaks) Non-intact skin (skin with open breaks) Mucous membranes Mucous membranes Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 21

22 Transmission based precautions- Isolation Precautions Transmission based precautions- Isolation Precautions  Isolation precautions are based on clean and dirty.  Clean areas or objects are free of pathogens.  Dirty areas or objects are contaminated with pathogens.  Clean and dirty also depend on how the pathogen is spread (may need gown and mask if respiratory)  Patients in isolation are kept in separate double rooms with their own ventilation areas. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 22

23 Bloodborne Pathogen Standard  The Bloodborne Pathogen Standard (OSHA) is intended to protect the health team from exposure.  HIV and HBV: Are found in the blood Are bloodborne pathogens Are bloodborne pathogens Exit the body through blood Exit the body through blood Are spread to others by blood Are spread to others by blood  Requires exposure control plan-Reason for your Hep B vaccine  Blood contaminated items are placed in red biohazard bags and cleaned up with spill kits Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 23

24  Preventive measures to reduce the risk of exposure include:  Hepatitis B vaccination  Training for employees  Engineering and work practice controls These reduce employee exposure in the workplace. These reduce employee exposure in the workplace.  Personal protective equipment (PPE) PPE protects your clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, and hair. PPE protects your clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, and hair. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 24 Bloodborne Pathogen Standard (cont’d)

25  Exposure incidents  An exposure incident is any eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM. Parenteral means piercing the mucous membranes or the skin. Parenteral means piercing the mucous membranes or the skin.  Report exposure incidents at once.  Confidentiality is important.  The source individual is the person whose blood or body fluids are the source of an exposure incident. Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 25 Bloodborne Pathogen Standard

26 Practice State Questions  What is the most important way to prevent the spread of infection?  Handwashing, handwashing, handwashing  What is the most important part of effective handwashing?  Friction! For at least 20 seconds! Copyright © 2012 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Slide 26


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