3 Objectives Spell and define terms Explain principles of medical asepsisExplain components of standard precautionsTypes of PPEDescribe nursing assistant actions related to standard precautionsDescribe airborne, droplet, & contact precautions
4 Medical AsepsisAsepsis-the absence of disease-producing microorganisms.-medical asepsis-surgical asepsisMedical asepsis-practices reduce the numbers of microorganisms or interrupt transmission.-aka-”clean”-Dirty or contaminated-have been exposed to known or potential pathogens.
5 HandwashingSingle most important procedure performed to prevent the spread of microbes.-Vigorous, short rubbing together of all surfaces of soap-lathered hands.-Followed by rinsing under a stream of running warm water.Nosocomial infection- infection acquired by a patient while being cared for in a health care facility.
6 Wash your hands when..? Before handling food After touching any soiled item or surfaceBefore touching mucous membranes or non- intact skinBefore and after every patient contactBefore applying and after removing glovesBefore any contact with your mucous membranesp
7 Hand Lotion & Waterless Hand Cleaners Select a light, non-oily product.Use a personal-sized bottle & do not share.When using waterless, alcohol-based cleaners:-Handwash when visibly soiled-Rub product into hand until dry-Do not use for pt. With C-Diff
8 Protecting YourselfOccupational Exposure- contacting potentially infectious material as you perform your dutiesPrevent by using proper medical asepsis & standard precautionsExposure Incident- your eyes, nose, mouth, mucous membranes, or nonintact skin had contact with blood or potentially infectious material.
10 Standard PrecautionsThe infection control actions used for all people receiving care, regardless of their condition or diagnosis.Apply when you may contact:-Blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions-Mucous membranes-Non-intact skin-p.185Work practice control-procedures to prevent spread of infections.
12 Personal Protective Equipment Gloves (p. 196 When to use)GownMaskGogglesFace Shield
13 Transmission-Based Precautions Precautions used with highly transmittable diseases.Communicable or contagious disease-may be transferred from one person to another directly or indirectly.Three kinds of precautions:-Airborne-Droplet-Contact
14 Airborne Precautions Transmitted by air currents Pathogens small & light, suspended in air, can travel through air currents.Examples:-Tuberculosis- Measles
15 Precautions Private room with negative air pressure N95 Respirator,HEPA filter mask, PFR95 (p.190)Limit pt. Transport to essential purposes only. Use mask on patient during transport.Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) lights. Ultraviolet-C light kills or inactivates pathogens.Anteroom-small room just inside entrance to pt. Room. Reduces escape of infectious organisms. Buffer between changes in air pressures
17 Droplet Precautions Can be spread by large droplets in the air. Spread by sneezing, coughing, talking, singing, & laughing.Generally don't travel past 3 feet of the patientExamples:-German measles-Mumps-Influenza
18 Precautions Private room if possible Wear mask when working within 3 feet of patientLimit transport to essential purposes. Use surgical mask on patient.
19 Contact PrecautionsInfectious pathogens spread by direct or indirect contact.Examples:-Head or body lice-Scabies-MRSA-C-Diff.
20 Precautions Private room if possible Gloves Hand Hygiene with antimicrobial agentGownPatient transport-Limit to essential purposes.Dedicated patient-care equipment
21 Isolation TechniqueThe method of caring for patients with easily transmitted diseaseStandard precautions in addition to transmission-based precautionsIsolation unit- may be an area or private room.
22 Disinfection & Sterilization Disinfection- the process of eliminating harmful pathogens from equipment and instrumentsSterilization- removes all microorganisms from an item.Autoclave- uses steam and pressure to kill organisms & sterilize
23 Sterile ProceduresSurgical asepsis-the environment is kept free of all microbes, both pathogens and non-pathogens.Equipment & supplies must be sterile.Sterile field- area of sterile equipment and materials.-One inch around not sterile-keep equipment within 2 inches-Never reach over field-Moisture=contamination-Discard if suspicion of contamination