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Unit 3 Chapter 14 Kinesiology.

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1 Unit 3 Chapter 14 Kinesiology

2 Kinesiology The multidisciplinary study of physical activity or movement; encompasses anatomy, biomechanics, physiology, psychomotor behavior, and social and cultural factors. Kinesiology is “The study of Movement” – how the body moves, by way of its joints and related structures with a focus on exercise stress, movement efficiency, and fitness.

3 Articulation System The articular system is a series of joints that allow movement of the human body. This series of joints, combined with the neuromuscular system, enables locomotion. Joint articulation – when two bones come into contact; connecting point of two bones.

4 The study of joints Arthrology
Many joints are named by combining the names of two bones that form the joint.

5 Two Functions of Joints
Allow motion 2. Provide stability

6 Three Classifications of Joints
Synarthroses, or immovable Amphiarthroses, or slightly moveable Diarthroses, or freely moveable also known as Synovial Joints Joint articulations can be: a. Freely moveable – as in knee, or hip b. Slightly moveable – pubic symphysis, as in movement during child birth, ribs, between vertabrae c. Immobile – as in fused - skull

7 6 Types of Synovial Joints

8 Pivot Joint Bones move around a central axis Rotational movement Examples: radius/ulna

9 2. Gliding Joint Sliding motion – back and forth/side to side
Carpals of wrist, tarsals of ankle, also between the vertebrae

10 3. Hinge Joint Only allows extension and flexion
Example: Knee, elbow, and phalanges of the fingers and toes Distinguishing feature – Convex surface of one bones fits into the concave surface of another.

11 4. Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joint
Distinguishing features: bones can move about in many directions, but cannot rotate. Examples: Metacarpals, phalanges(fingers and toes), metatarsals

12 5. Ball and Socket Joint Widest range of movement
Examples: Hips and Shoulders

13 6. Saddle Joint When two bones have both concave and convex regions with the two bones complementing each other. The only saddle joint in the body is the thumb which allows opposition.

14 Movements of Diarthroses (Synovial Joints)
Flexion Extension Hyperextension Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction

15 Movements of Synovial Joints cont..
Supination Pronation Plantar flexion Dorsiflexion Inversion eversion Protraction

16 Synovial Joint movement cont..
Retraction Elevation Depression Opposition

17 Disorders of Joints Disorders of the joint are common.
Generally due to overuse or stress on the joint – Athletes especially Other disorders of the joints are genetic or due to aging

18 Bursitis Bursitis – common in shoulders, hip, and elbow
If chronic – can lead to degeneration and atrophy – joint becomes stiff

19 Arthritis Inflammation of the whole joint – tissue, cartilage, bone, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood supply, etc. 100 varieties 10% will experience w/out a cure Treatment – Analgesics for pain

20 Rheumatic Fever Bacterial infection
If undetected in children – can get into blood an be carried to joints – Rheumatoid Arthritis

21 Rheumatoid Arthritis Tissue disorder – severe inflammation of small joints – hands, feet, Can be genetic, autoimmune reaction Connective tissue and membranes of the joint grow abnormally causing the two bones to fuse together

22 Primary Fibrositis Inflammation of the fibrous connective tissue in the joint. Commonly called Rheumatism. If in the lower back – called Lumbago

23 Osteoarthritis Also known as Degenerative joint disease
Occurs with age – especially with people in 70s More common in overweight people – affect the weight bearing joints Treatment – mild exercise

24 Gout Accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joint at the base of large toe and other joints of the feet and legs. More common in men than women Waste products can also accumulate in the kidneys, causing kidney damage

25 Anatomical Planes Coronal (Frontal Plane) - Divides the body into anterior and posterior Sagittal Plane – divides the body into right and left sides Axial Plane(Transverse Plane) divides the body into upper and lower

26 Closed Kinematic Chain
Squat, pull up, push-up, walking

27 Open kinematic Chain Seated leg ext., waving hand, kicking a ball,

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