2 KinesiologyThe multidisciplinary study of physical activity or movement; encompasses anatomy, biomechanics, physiology, psychomotor behavior, and social and cultural factors.Kinesiology is “The study of Movement” – how the body moves, by way of its joints and related structures with a focus on exercise stress, movement efficiency, and fitness.
3 Articulation SystemThe articular system is a series of joints that allow movement of the human body.This series of joints, combined with the neuromuscular system, enables locomotion.Joint articulation – when two bones come into contact; connecting point of two bones.
4 The study of joints Arthrology Many joints are named by combining the names of two bones that form the joint.
5 Two Functions of Joints Allow motion2. Provide stability
6 Three Classifications of Joints Synarthroses, or immovableAmphiarthroses, or slightly moveableDiarthroses, or freely moveable also known as Synovial JointsJoint articulations can be:a. Freely moveable – as in knee, or hipb. Slightly moveable – pubic symphysis, as in movement during child birth, ribs, between vertabraec. Immobile – as in fused - skull
8 Pivot JointBones move around a central axisRotational movementExamples: radius/ulna
9 2. Gliding Joint Sliding motion – back and forth/side to side Carpals of wrist, tarsals of ankle, also between the vertebrae
10 3. Hinge Joint Only allows extension and flexion Example: Knee, elbow, and phalanges of the fingers and toesDistinguishing feature – Convex surface of one bones fits into the concave surface of another.
11 4. Condyloid or Ellipsoidal Joint Distinguishing features: bones can move about in many directions, but cannot rotate.Examples: Metacarpals, phalanges(fingers and toes), metatarsals
12 5. Ball and Socket Joint Widest range of movement Examples: Hips and Shoulders
13 6. Saddle JointWhen two bones have both concave and convex regions with the two bones complementing each other.The only saddle joint in the body is the thumb which allows opposition.
14 Movements of Diarthroses (Synovial Joints) FlexionExtensionHyperextensionAbductionAdductionRotationCircumduction
15 Movements of Synovial Joints cont.. SupinationPronationPlantar flexionDorsiflexionInversioneversionProtraction
16 Synovial Joint movement cont.. RetractionElevationDepressionOpposition
17 Disorders of Joints Disorders of the joint are common. Generally due to overuse or stress on the joint – Athletes especiallyOther disorders of the joints are genetic or due to aging
18 Bursitis Bursitis – common in shoulders, hip, and elbow If chronic – can lead to degeneration and atrophy – joint becomes stiff
19 ArthritisInflammation of the whole joint – tissue, cartilage, bone, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, blood supply, etc.100 varieties 10% will experience w/out a cureTreatment – Analgesics for pain
20 Rheumatic Fever Bacterial infection If undetected in children – can get into blood an be carried to joints – Rheumatoid Arthritis
21 Rheumatoid ArthritisTissue disorder – severe inflammation of small joints – hands, feet,Can be genetic, autoimmune reactionConnective tissue and membranes of the joint grow abnormally causing the two bones to fuse together
22 Primary FibrositisInflammation of the fibrous connective tissue in the joint.Commonly called Rheumatism.If in the lower back – called Lumbago
23 Osteoarthritis Also known as Degenerative joint disease Occurs with age – especially with people in 70sMore common in overweight people – affect the weight bearing jointsTreatment – mild exercise
24 GoutAccumulation of uric acid crystals in the joint at the base of large toe and other joints of the feet and legs.More common in men than womenWaste products can also accumulate in the kidneys, causing kidney damage
25 Anatomical PlanesCoronal (Frontal Plane) - Divides the body into anterior and posteriorSagittal Plane – divides the body into right and left sidesAxial Plane(Transverse Plane) divides the body into upper and lower