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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 9, part 1 Articulations

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Contrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structure and function for each. Describe the structure of a synovial joint. Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton. List the types of synovial joint, and discuss the relationship of structure to function in each.

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Describe the structure and function of the vertebrae, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints. Describe the relationship between joint strength and mobility. Describe the effects of aging on the joints.

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 9-1 A Classification of Joints

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Articulations Where two bones interconnect Immovable joints Synarthroses, or bony Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or fibrous / cartilagenous Freely moveable joints Diarthroses, or synovial Articulations

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Synarthroses (immovable joints) Four major types Suture = skull bones bound together by dense connective tissue Gomphosis = teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligaments Synchondrosis = two bones bound by rigid cartilaginous bridge Syntosis = two bones completely fused

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Amphiarthroses (slightly movable joints) Two major types Syndesmosis = bones connected by a ligament Symphysis = bone separated by fibrocartilage

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Diarthroses (freely movable joints) Bony surfaces enclosed within articular capsule Bony surfaces covered by articular cartilage Bony surfaces lubricated by synovial fluid Structures include Menisci Fat pads Accessory ligaments Bursae

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.1 The Structure of a Synovial Joint Figure 9.1

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 9-2 Articular Form and Function

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dynamic motion Linear motion Angular motion Rotation Joints classified based on type of motion permitted Monaxial Biaxial Triaxial Dynamic motion

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.2 A Simple Model of Articular Motion Figure 9.2

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding motion Two surfaces slide past one another Angular motion Flexion, extension, hyperextension Abduction, adduction Circumduction Types of movement

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.3 Angular Movements Figure 9.3 Animation: Flexion, Extension, Hyperextension PLAY

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Left or right Medial (internal) or lateral (external) Pronation or supination in the bones of the forearm only Rotational movement

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.4a,b Figure 9.4 Rotational Movements

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.4c Figure 9.4 Rotational Movements

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Movements of the foot Inversion and eversion Plantar flexion and dorsiflexion Movements of the thumb Opposition Special movement

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protraction moves a structure anteriorly Retraction moves a structure posteriorly Elevation moves a structure superiorly Depression moves a structure inferiorly Lateral flexion bends the vertebrae to one side Other movements

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.5 Special Movements Figure 9.5

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gliding joints permit movement in a single plane Hinge joints are monaxial joints permitting angular motion in one plane Pivot joints are monaxial joints that permit rotation Ellipsoid joints are biaxial joints that pit one bone in an oval depression of another Saddle joints are biaxial joints with one concave and one convex bone face Ball-and-socket joints are triaxial joints that permit rotation and other movements Structural classification of joints

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.6 Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 9.6 Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints Animation: Joint Motion PLAY


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