2Learning ObjectivesContrast the major categories of joints, and explain the relationship between structure and function for each.Describe the structure of a synovial joint.Describe the dynamic movements of the skeleton.List the types of synovial joint, and discuss the relationship of structure to function in each.
3Learning ObjectivesDescribe the structure and function of the vertebrae, shoulder, elbow, hip and knee joints.Describe the relationship between joint strength and mobility.Describe the effects of aging on the joints.
5Articulations Articulations Where two bones interconnect Immovable jointsSynarthroses, or bonySlightly moveable jointsAmphiarthroses, or fibrous / cartilagenousFreely moveable jointsDiarthroses, or synovial
6Synarthroses (immovable joints) Four major typesSuture = skull bones bound together by dense connective tissueGomphosis = teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligamentsSynchondrosis = two bones bound by rigid cartilaginous bridgeSyntosis = two bones completely fused
7Amphiarthroses (slightly movable joints) Two major typesSyndesmosis = bones connected by a ligamentSymphysis = bone separated by fibrocartilage
8Diarthroses (freely movable joints) Bony surfaces enclosed within articular capsuleBony surfaces covered by articular cartilageBony surfaces lubricated by synovial fluidStructures includeMenisciFat padsAccessory ligamentsBursae
18Special movement Movements of the foot Inversion and eversion Plantar flexion and dorsiflexionMovements of the thumbOpposition
19Other movements Protraction moves a structure anteriorly Retraction moves a structure posteriorlyElevation moves a structure superiorlyDepression moves a structure inferiorlyLateral flexion bends the vertebrae to one side
21Structural classification of joints Gliding joints permit movement in a single planeHinge joints are monaxial joints permitting angular motion in one planePivot joints are monaxial joints that permit rotationEllipsoid joints are biaxial joints that pit one bone in an oval depression of anotherSaddle joints are biaxial joints with one concave and one convex bone faceBall-and-socket joints are triaxial joints that permit rotation and other movements
22Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints
23Figure 9.6 A Functional Classification of Synovial Joints PLAYAnimation: Joint MotionFigure 9.6