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Joints AS Level Anatomy and Physiology. Lesson Outcomes By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: The 6 main types of synovial joints The structure.

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Presentation on theme: "Joints AS Level Anatomy and Physiology. Lesson Outcomes By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: The 6 main types of synovial joints The structure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Joints AS Level Anatomy and Physiology

2 Lesson Outcomes By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: The 6 main types of synovial joints The structure of synovial joints The type of movement joints can perform

3 Synovial joints Freely moveable Found in the appendicular skeleton Structure There are several important structures common to all synovial joints…

4 Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR features Articular/Hyaline Cartilage Smooth cartilage at the end of bones at the joint Two-Layered Joint Capsule Outer Layer – Tough fibrous capsule Inner Layer – Synovial Membrane Synovial Fluid Slippery fluid in joint capsule (like egg white!) Ligament A band of strong fibrous tissue Structure

5 Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR Functions Articular/Hyaline Cartilage Prevent friction between articulating bones Two-Layered Joint Capsule Outer Layer – Strengthen joint Inner Layer – To secrete synovial fluid Synovial Fluid Reduce friction between articular cartilages Nourish articular cartilage Rid the joint of waste Ligament To connect one bone to another

6 There are six main types of synovial joint found in the body Can you name them and give examples? Types of Synovial Joint

7 The 6 Types Hinge Knee, Elbow Condyloid Wrist Gliding Articulating surfaces of the vertebrae Pivot Radio-ulna, atlas/axis Ball and Socket Shoulder, Hip Saddle Thumb

8 Movements at Joints All movements start from the anatomical position (AP) – see picture of skeleton Flexion – movement forward from AP (except knee joint) Extension – movement backward from AP (except knee joint)

9 Practice these movements for the following joints…. Wrist, elbow, shoulder, spine, hip, knee TASK Info: The knee joint is the only exception where flexion moves backwards and extension moves forwards

10 Abduction – movement away from midline of body Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hip Adduction – movement towards midline of body Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hip Rotation and circumduction – what is the difference? To recognise the difference: Rotation: the long axis of the moving part would draw a dot if a pen was held at the end Circumduction: the pen would draw a circle

11 Specialist Movements Supination – radio-ulna joint – palms up Pronation – radio-ulna joint – palms down Dorsi-flexion – ankle joint – toes up Plantar-flexion – ankle joint – toes down Point to the floor Practise these movements then complete worksheet 1.3 (labelling an upper/lower joint)

12 Homework! Complete the crossword Hint For 3 down the pelvis is also called the illium!


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