Presentation on theme: "AS Level Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1 AS Level Anatomy and Physiology JointsAS LevelAnatomy and Physiology
2 By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: Lesson OutcomesBy the end of today’s lesson you will understand:The 6 main types of synovial jointsThe structure of synovial jointsThe type of movement joints can perform
3 Synovial joints Freely moveable Found in the appendicular skeleton StructureThere are several important structures common to all synovial joints…
4 Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR featuresArticular/Hyaline CartilageSmooth cartilage at the end of bones at the jointTwo-Layered Joint CapsuleOuter Layer – Tough fibrous capsuleInner Layer – Synovial MembraneSynovial FluidSlippery fluid in joint capsule (like egg white!)LigamentA band of strong fibrous tissueStructureStructureStructureStructure
5 Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR FunctionsArticular/Hyaline CartilagePrevent friction between articulating bonesTwo-Layered Joint CapsuleOuter Layer – Strengthen jointInner Layer – To secrete synovial fluidSynovial FluidReduce friction between articular cartilagesNourish articular cartilageRid the joint of wasteLigamentTo connect one bone to another
6 Types of Synovial Joint There are six main types of synovial joint found in the bodyCan you name themand give examples?
7 The 6 Types Hinge Knee, Elbow Condyloid Wrist Gliding Articulating surfaces of the vertebraePivot Radio-ulna, atlas/axisBall and Socket Shoulder, HipSaddle Thumb
8 Movements at JointsAll movements start from the anatomical position (AP) – see picture of skeletonFlexion – movement forward from AP (except knee joint)Extension – movement backward from AP (except knee joint)
9 TASKPractice these movements for the following joints…. Wrist, elbow, shoulder, spine, hip, kneeInfo: The knee joint is the only exception where flexion moves backwards and extension moves forwards
10 Abduction – movement away from midline of body Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hipAdduction – movement towards midline of bodyRotation and circumduction – what is the difference?To recognise the difference:Rotation: the long axis of the moving part would draw a dot if a pen was held at the endCircumduction: the pen would draw a circle
11 Specialist Movements Supination – radio-ulna joint – palms up Pronation – radio-ulna joint – palms downDorsi-flexion – ankle joint – toes upPlantar-flexion – ankle joint – toes downPoint to the floorPractise these movements then complete worksheet 1.3 (labelling an upper/lower joint)
12 Homework! Complete the crossword Hint For 3 down the pelvis is also called the illium!