Presentation on theme: "AS Level Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:
1AS Level Anatomy and Physiology JointsAS LevelAnatomy and Physiology
2By the end of today’s lesson you will understand: Lesson OutcomesBy the end of today’s lesson you will understand:The 6 main types of synovial jointsThe structure of synovial jointsThe type of movement joints can perform
3Synovial joints Freely moveable Found in the appendicular skeleton StructureThere are several important structures common to all synovial joints…
4Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR featuresArticular/Hyaline CartilageSmooth cartilage at the end of bones at the jointTwo-Layered Joint CapsuleOuter Layer – Tough fibrous capsuleInner Layer – Synovial MembraneSynovial FluidSlippery fluid in joint capsule (like egg white!)LigamentA band of strong fibrous tissueStructureStructureStructureStructure
5Structure and Function of Synovial Joints (Important!) FOUR FunctionsArticular/Hyaline CartilagePrevent friction between articulating bonesTwo-Layered Joint CapsuleOuter Layer – Strengthen jointInner Layer – To secrete synovial fluidSynovial FluidReduce friction between articular cartilagesNourish articular cartilageRid the joint of wasteLigamentTo connect one bone to another
6Types of Synovial Joint There are six main types of synovial joint found in the bodyCan you name themand give examples?
7The 6 Types Hinge Knee, Elbow Condyloid Wrist Gliding Articulating surfaces of the vertebraePivot Radio-ulna, atlas/axisBall and Socket Shoulder, HipSaddle Thumb
8Movements at JointsAll movements start from the anatomical position (AP) – see picture of skeletonFlexion – movement forward from AP (except knee joint)Extension – movement backward from AP (except knee joint)
9TASKPractice these movements for the following joints…. Wrist, elbow, shoulder, spine, hip, kneeInfo: The knee joint is the only exception where flexion moves backwards and extension moves forwards
10Abduction – movement away from midline of body Occurs at wrist, shoulder, hipAdduction – movement towards midline of bodyRotation and circumduction – what is the difference?To recognise the difference:Rotation: the long axis of the moving part would draw a dot if a pen was held at the endCircumduction: the pen would draw a circle
11Specialist Movements Supination – radio-ulna joint – palms up Pronation – radio-ulna joint – palms downDorsi-flexion – ankle joint – toes upPlantar-flexion – ankle joint – toes downPoint to the floorPractise these movements then complete worksheet 1.3 (labelling an upper/lower joint)
12Homework! Complete the crossword Hint For 3 down the pelvis is also called the illium!