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Articulations / Joints

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Presentation on theme: "Articulations / Joints"— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulations / Joints

2 Joints - Articulations
Where 2 bones meet. Classified by degree of motion (functional) and major connective tissue types that bind the bones together (structural) Fibrous joints – united by fibrous tissue and has little to no movement. Example – Sutures, gomphosis (teeth), syndesmosis –tibia / fibula distal articulation Cartilaginous joints – united by cartilage. Only slight movement. Synchondrosis – epiphyseal plate, Symphysis - pubic Synovial joint – freely moveable contains synovial fluid in a cavity surrounding bones. Examples – shoulder, knee

3 Function classification
Synarthrosis – immovable joint Amphiarthrosis – slightly movable Diarthrosis – freely movable. -sis is replaced with –ses for the plural form

4 Capsular nature of a synovial joint
Cavity (synovial joint) enclosed by a capsule (2 layers) Fibrous cartilage – dense irregular, encloses cavity Ligaments – connects bone to bone Tendons – connect muscles to bone Articular cartilage – hyaline cartilage at ends of bones Synovial membranes –areolar, produced synovial fluid for lubrication, nutrients, and metabolic waste removal

5 Capsular nature of a synovial joint
Articular disc / meniscus – pads of fibrocartilage that lie between the articular surfaces of the bones (lateral and medial) Bursae – closed sacs, with a synovial lining. Subcutaneous (patella), subfascial – between muscles, Subtendinous – tendon and process or tendon

6 Synovial joint

7 The knee joint Patellar ligament – patella to tibia, anterior
Oblique popliteal ligament - posterior surface Acruate popliteal ligament – lower later post. Medial collateral ligament – medial (inside) Lateral collateral ligament – lateral (outside) Anterior cruciate ligament – tibia, post and laterally to the femur, 70% serious injury Posterior cruciate ligament – tibia, anterior and medial to the femur (menisci, bursae)

8 Knee joint

9 Synovial joints Joint Description Example Planar
Flat or slightly curved Wrist, ankle Hinge convex one concave other elbow, knee Ball and Socket ball one socket other shoulder, hip Saddle 2 saddle at right angles thumb, wrist Pivot Rotation on axis head (no) Condyloid Convex oval projection in a concave oval fossa Metacarpal, phalanges

10 Major joint movement Flexion – decrease in the angle
Extension – increase in the angle Hyperextension – extension beyond position Abduction – away from midline Adduction – toward midline Pronation – palm down Supination – palm up Eversion – foot out Inversion – foot in Dorsiflexion – foot up Plantar flexion – foot down

11 Major joint movement con’t
Rotation – turn around long bone axis Protraction – structure glides to anterior (front) Retraction – structure glides to posterior (back) Elevation – move structure superior (up) Depression – move structure inferior (down) Excursion – move one side to another Opposition – move of thumb to pinky Reposition – return thumb / pinky to normal Circumduction – arm / hip circles

12 Aging and joints Decreased synovial fluid
Articular cartilage thins (glucosamine chondroitin / shark cartilage) Ligaments shorten and lose flexibility Degenerative changes in vertebral column, hunched – over posture Stretching and aerobic exercise that help with range of motion, help to minimize aging effects

13 Joint Disorders Bursitis – inflammation of bursa (elbow and shoulder)
Arthritis – inflammation of the whole joint Rheumatoid arthritis – connective tissue disorder (excess growth) with severe inflammation of small joints Rheumatic fever – bacterial (strep) infection that causes RA if left undetected. Fibrositis – inflammation of fibrous connective tissue in a joint; “rheumatism,” lumbago – lower back Osteoarthritis – Degenerative joint, elderly, weight – bearing joints

14 Joint disorders continued
Gout – uric acid crystals in joint at large toe base Sprain – twisting tears ligaments (ankles and wrists) Strain – stretched or partially torn muscle Slipped Disk – intervertebral disk protrudes or moves out of place, pressure on nerve Dislocation – temporary displaced bone Cumulative trauma disorder – ongoing “repetitive” or overuse damage to soft tissue. Carpal tunnel- medial nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel

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