Presentation on theme: "JOINTS IN THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. What is a Joint? The area where two or more bones articulate (move). Joints give structure and flexibility to the skeleton."— Presentation transcript:
JOINTS IN THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
What is a Joint? The area where two or more bones articulate (move). Joints give structure and flexibility to the skeleton.
Structural Classifications: 1) Fibrous Joints: Bones are connected by dense fibrous tissue – usu. immovable 2) Cartilaginous Joints: Bones are connected by cartilage (vertebral column, pubic bones) - usu. Slightly movable or immovable 3) Synovial Joints: a joint cavity with fluid allowing highly movable joints.
Synovial Joints 1)Articular Cartilage covers the ends 2)Fibrous Articular capsule is formed by the synovial membrane 3)Joint cavity has lubricating synovial fluid 4)Reinforcing ligaments usually found.
Rotator Cuff Injury
Types of Synovial Joints: 1)Plane Joint: Slipping or gliding movement between bones (wrist/ankle) 2) Hinge Joint: Motion on a single plane (elbow) 3) Pivot Joint: Movement of a bone along its longitudinal axis (radius, atlas/axis “no”)
Types of Synovial Joints 4) Condyloid Joint: Oval surfaces (concave/convex) on two bones match (metacarpal/phalange joint-knuckle)
Types of Synovial Joints 5) Saddle Joint: concave/convex surfaces with greater range of movement (carpo-metacarpal joint of your thumb) 6) Ball and Socket Joint: The head of a bone fits into a cuplike socket (femur/acetabulum)
JOINTS GONE BAD Arthritis: (Arth=Joint itis=Inflammation) *Disease that causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of a joint. *1 out of 7 Americans *Can be caused by bacterial infection or genetic *Synovial membranes thicken, less fluid, more bone friction
Three types of Arthritis 1)Osteoarthritis (OA): chronic. Cartilage wears out between bones, usu. causes bone spurs 2)Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): chronic. An autoimmune disorder where the body destroys its own tissue
3) Gouty Arthritis (Gout): Uric acid accumulates in the blood and is deposited as needle-shaped crystals in the joints. Very painful and can cause joints to fuse. Gout Crystals
Osteoporosis Loss in bone mass Leads to thin, brittle bones A decrease in estrogen can cause it Poor diet, smoking, and lack of vitamin D also causes