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Noncommunicable Disease A Noncommunicable Disease is a disease that is not spread through contact. –Are caused by how people live, conditions they are.

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Presentation on theme: "Noncommunicable Disease A Noncommunicable Disease is a disease that is not spread through contact. –Are caused by how people live, conditions they are."— Presentation transcript:


2 Noncommunicable Disease A Noncommunicable Disease is a disease that is not spread through contact. –Are caused by how people live, conditions they are born with, or environmental hazards.

3 Noncommunicable Disease –Are not spread by contact because most are not caused by germs. Instead they are the breakdown in body cells and tissues.

4 Non-Communicable Disease Degenerative Diseases –Cause further breakdown, or degeneration in body cells and tissues as they progress

5 Non-Communicable Disease Chronic Diseases –Are present either continuously or off and on over a long period of time –May develop as a result of a person’s lifestyle behaviors or substances in a person’s environment

6 Noncommunicable Disease Diseases Present at Birth –Genetic Disorder- one in which the body does not develop or function normally because of an inherited problem

7 Noncommunicable Disease –Birth Defect- disorders of the developing and newborn baby, causes unknown –In most cases there are no cure for either genetic disorders or birth defects

8 Noncommunicable Disease Diseases Resulting from Lifestyle Behaviors –Risk Factors are certain characteristics that increase a person’s chances of developing the disease.

9 Noncommunicable Disease –Many diseases are the direct or indirect result of harmful lifestyle behaviors. Healthful lifestyle behaviors, on the other hand, can help prevent or control certain diseases and disorders.

10 Non-Communicable Disease Diseases Caused by the Environment –Many diseases are caused by hazards in the environment

11 Non-Communicable Disease –Examples of harmful substances that may be present in the environment: Fumes from chemicals, second hand smoke, radon, asbestos

12 Heart Disease Heart disease is the #1 killer of adults in the US!

13 Heart Disease The term heart disease includes any condition that lessens the strength or function of the heart or blood vessels. Healthy lifestyle behaviors lower risk of heart disease

14 Heart Disease Like other cells, the cells of your heart need oxygen and nutrients. The arteries that supply your heart muscles with blood are called coronary arteries.

15 Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis -Atherosclerosis- condition in which fatty substances (ex- cholesterol) in the blood are deposited on the walls of the arteries -Cholesterol- a fatty substance that causes atherosclerosis, some cholesterol is produced by the body, certain foods also contain cholesterol

16 Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis –Arteriosclerosis- hardening of the arteries. Slows flow of blood and is a major cause of high blood pressure. –A blood clot may result from the reduced flow of blood.

17 Heart Disease When the flow of blood is reduced, blood clots may form within the blood vessels. When a coronary artery is blocked, the result can be a heart attack. When an artery in the brain is blocked the result can be a stroke.

18 Heart Disease High blood Pressure –Blood Pressure- force of the blood on the inside walls of the blood vessels. –Typical blood pressure for teens is 110/70

19 Heart Disease –Your blood pressure is not the same at all times. It may increase while exercising or under stress and my lower when at rest. –Hypertension (high blood pressure)- when the blood pressure is consistently higher then normal.

20 Heart Disease –4 factors that increase your chances of having high blood pressure Eating a large amount of salt Being overweight Feeling extreme stress for long periods of time Having a family history of high blood pressure

21 Heart Disease –There are no outward signs of High Blood Pressure until it has caused serious damage. (The Silent Killer)

22 Heart Disease Preventing Heart Disease Nine Risk Factors for Heart Disease –Not within a person’s control: Age Gender Race Family history

23 Heart Disease Nine Risk Factors for Heart Disease –Within a person’s control: Weight Exercise Diet Tobacco

24 Heart Disease Treating Heart Disease –Heart Transplant- replacing diseased heart with healthy heart from a donor –Bypass Surgery- remove a vein from the leg and form a detour around the blockage

25 Heart Disease –Dissolving Blood Clots- medications are used to dissolve the clots –Angioplasty –Medication –Changing Lifestyle Behaviors

26 Understanding Heart Disease Preventing Heart Disease STRESS Exercise Diet Weight Tobacco Alcohol

27 Cancer 2 nd leading cause of death in adults in the US What is Cancer? –Involve abnormal body cells growing out of control. –Many different types of cancers that affect most parts of the body.

28 Cancer Tumors (groups of abnormal cells) –Benign Tumor are not cancerous –Malignant Tumor cancerous

29 Cancer Cancer progresses in stages. In the final stage, cancer cells from malignant tumors may enter the bloodstream or lymph system and travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors. The spreading of cancer cells is called metastasis.

30 Cancer What Causes Cancer? –Factors that are inherited –Lifestyle behaviors –Carcinogens- substances that cause cancer, some can be avoided

31 Cancer Diagnosing Cancer –The earlier cancer is detected the better the chance of the person’s survival.

32 Cancer Diagnosing Cancer –an be Diagnosed through Routine Physical Examination Blood Tests Biopsy- small piece of tissue is removed for testing in a lab

33 Cancer Warning Signs of Cancer –There are 7 warning signs of cancer identified by the American Cancer Society

34 Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore that does not heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere Indigestion or difficulty swallowing Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough or hoarseness

35 Cancer Treatment of Cancer –Surgery- remove cancer cells from the body –Radiation- X-rays, or other radioactive substances are aimed at a tumor

36 Cancer –Chemotherapy- chemicals are used to destroy cancer cells –All three can damage healthy cells with the cancer cells. Radiation and chemotherapy used to treat one cancer may cause a second cancer years later.

37 Cancer Preventing Cancer –You can lower you risk of developing some types of cancer by making certain healthy choices. Avoid Tobacco Eat Healthy Limit Sun Exposure

38 Allergies In some cases the immune system reacts to substances to which a person is sensitive. And allergy is the body’s sensitivity to certain substances.

39 Allergies An allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction. Many people are allergic to pollen, tiny grains from plants.

40 Allergies Reactions to Allergies –In response to allergens the body releases histamines (chemicals in the body that cause the symptoms of the allergic reaction)

41 Allergies –Symptoms Difficulty Breathing Skin rash Hives- raised bumps on the skin that are very itchy

42 Allergies Diagnosing Allergies –If cause is unknown the patient’s skin is scratched and tiny doses of possible allergens are inserted. If the patient is allergic to one of the substances, the skin at that particular place will turn red and swell slightly.

43 Allergies Treating Allergies –NO Cure –Antihistamines- medications that work against the effect of the histamines –Exposing the allergic person to extremely small quantities of the allergen to build immunity to it

44 Asthma Asthma- a serious chronic condition that causes tiny air passages in the respiratory system to become narrow or blocked. More than 10 million people in the US have asthma. 1/3 of these people are under the age of 18.

45 Asthma Periods when asthma symptoms are being experienced is called asthma attacks. Substances or events that start the attacks are called asthma triggers.

46 Asthma Common Triggers of Asthma –Exposure to allergens –Cold air –Cigarette smoke

47 Asthma Common Triggers of Asthma –Air pollution –Certain foods or drugs –Strenuous Activity

48 Asthma Treatments –Relaxation Techniques –Medication

49 Asthma –Medication Some block swelling in the bronchial tubes and decrease the amount of mucus being produced. Others, called bronchodilators, are used to relax the muscles that have tightened around the airways.

50 Other Noncommunicable Diseases Arthritis –A person with arthritis may have one of more than 100 conditions marked by pain and swelling in body joints. –About 1 person in every 7 suffer from arthritis –Can affect people of any age

51 Rheumatoid Arthritis Body joints become swollen and painful, and cartilage that separates the bones is destroyed Affected joints become destroyed and stiff, and they no longer function normally

52 Rheumatoid Arthritis Cause is not known, it may follow infection or injury Treatment- no cure, joints may be reconstructed or replaced by surgery, treatment centers help relieve pain and preserve or improve joint function.

53 Other Noncommunicable Diseases Arthritis Continued Osteoarthritis –Results in the wearing away of the body joints –Your risk increases with age, but it can affect people of all ages

54 Osteoarthritis –Symptoms: pain and stiffness in the morning, pain or swelling in a joint, and pain and stiffness in the lower back or knees

55 Osteoarthritis - Treatment- ibuprofen or aspirin, to ease the pain and swelling, exercise to prevent the damage from becoming worse, surgery to replace the diseased joint with a mechanical one

56 Other Noncommunicable Diseases Diabetes –Disease that prevents the body from converting food into energy –Affects people of all ages –About 16 million people in the US have diabetes

57 Diabetes - Causes: heredity, problems with the production of the hormone insulin –Insulin- regulates level of glucose in the blood

58 Diabetes –Symptoms: excess production of urine, excess thirst, excess hunger, weight loss, shortness of breath, dry itchy skin, lack of energy

59 Diabetes –Type I Diabetes The result of little or no insulin produced by the pancreas Must always take insulin to maintain life (insulin- dependent) usually develops in children and young adults, affects more males than females

60 Diabetes –Type II Diabetes Result of too little insulin produced by the pancreas or the inability to use insulin 90% of all diabetes cases are type II Develops in people who are overweight and more than 40 years old

61 Diabetes –Treatment Type I- need to take insulin every day (injection with a hypodermic needle) Type II- take a medicine that helps them use the insulin their body makes NO Cure If left untreated it can lead to blindness, loss of feeling or severe pain in the feet and hands, kidney failure, and hardening of the arteries

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