Presentation on theme: "What is Diabetes? A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Three types of Diabetes: Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Diabetes affects."— Presentation transcript:
What is Diabetes? A disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Three types of Diabetes: Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Diabetes affects more than 20 million Americans and over 40 million Americans have pre-diabetes.
What causes Diabetes? When your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar.
Symptoms Vision changes Excess thirst Fatigue Frequent urination Hunger Weight loss Tingling or numbness in hands or feet Feeling very tired much of the time More infections than usual Very dry skin Sores that are slow to heal
Type I Diabetes Previously called, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile-onset diabetes. Pancreas cannot produce insulin. Glucose (sugar) is built up in the bloodstream instead of going to the cells for energy. Most often diagnosed in children, adolescents, and young adults. Makes up about 5% of diagnosed cases of diabetes.
Type II Diabetes Previously called, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. When your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. (Insulin resistance) Sugar can not enter cells so it builds up in the blood. Makes up for 90-95% of diagnosed cases of diabetes. Keeping a healthy diet and active lifestyle can help prevent type II diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes Only pregnant women can get this type of diabetes. Pregnancy hormones block insulin from doing its job. Can cause problems in the mother and baby if not treated. Develops in 2-10% of pregnancies. Usually disappears when pregnancy is over.
What is Cancer? Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. New cells grow when your body doesn’t need them and old cells don’t die off when they should. Extra cells form a mass called a tumor. Tumors: Benign- non-cancerous Malignant- cancer Can develop in almost any organ or tissue.
General Signs and Symptoms Unexplained Weight Loss Fever Fatigue Pain Skin Changes There are more specific symptoms with different types of cancers.
Causes of Cancer Benzene and other chemicals Drinking excess alcohol Environmental toxins Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation Viruses The cause of many cancers are still unknown
Common Cancers Men in the United States: Prostate Lung Colon Women in the United States: Breast Colon Lung Most common cancer-related death is from lung cancer.
Other Types of Cancers Brain cancer Cervical cancer Hodgkin's lymphoma Kidney cancer Leukemia Liver cancer Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma Ovarian cancer Skin cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer
Common Tests Biopsy of the tumor Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest x-ray Complete blood count (CBC) CT scan MRI scan
Treatments Surgery Radiation- uses high energy to kill tumor cells without harming healthy cells. Chemotherapy- Uses drugs to kill cancer cells.
What is Cardiovascular Disease? Narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries (blood vessels that supple blood to the heart). Atherosclerosis- plaque builds up in the walls of arteries. Leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Each minute, someone in the United States dies from a heart disease-related event.
Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary Artery Disease (most common) Plaque buildup in your coronary arteries that leads to blockages. Can cause heart attacks. Stroke Ischemic stroke (most common stroke)- blood vessel that feeds to the brain gets blocked. Hemorrhagic stroke- blood vessel in the brain bursts from uncontrolled hypertension. Heart Failure Heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should be. Arrhythmia Abnormal rhythm of the heart. Heart Valve Disease Heart valves don’t open enough to allow blood to flow as well as it should be.
Treatment Heart Valve Problems Medications Heart Valve Surgery Arrhythmia Medications Pacemaker Cardiac Defibrillation Heart Attack Medications Coronary Angioplasty (procedure to open blocked or narrow arteries) Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (surgery to improve blood flow to the heart) Stroke Medications Carotid Endarterectomy (surgery to remove fatty deposits blocking the arteries)
Risk Factors High cholesterol High blood pressure Diabetes Cigarette smoking Overweight and obesity Poor diet Physical inactivity Alcohol use
Prevention Control your blood pressure Lower your cholesterol Don't smoke Get enough exercise Eat a healthy diet