Allergies Allergies are caused by a variety of substances. These substances are present in your environment and make their way into your body.
Allergies Allergies are a very common noncommunicable illness caused by allergens. Allergy A specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance
Allergies Common Allergens Pollen Certain foods Dust Mold spores Chemicals Insect venom Dander from animals Certain medicines
Allergies Histamines cause sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose, and other allergy symptoms. Histamines Chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.
Allergies 1 2 3 4 The allergen enters the body, which treats the allergen as a foreign invader. Antigens on the surface of allergens attach to special immune cells in the linings of the nasal passage. These immune cells release histamines. Histamines cause sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose, and other allergy symptoms.
Allergies There are many kinds of allergic reactions. Some allergies produce hives—itchy raised bumps on the skin.
Allergies More serious allergic reactions that can be life threatening include: Severe hives; itching or swelling of an area stung by an insect Difficulty breathing or swallowing Swelling of the tongue, mouth, or eyes Sharp drop in blood pressure, which can cause dizziness
Diagnosing Allergies Sometimes you can diagnose an allergy yourself. In many cases, though, blood tests and skin tests are needed to identify the source of an allergic reaction.
Diagnosing Allergies During a skin test, small amounts of possible allergens are applied to a scratched area of the skin.
Treating Allergies The simplest way to treat an allergy is to avoid the allergen that causes it. When avoidance is not possible, people with allergies can take medicines that help control allergy symptoms called antihistamines.
Treating Allergies If you suffer from severe allergies, your doctor may prescribe antihistamines or a single, injectable dose of medicine that you carry with you at all times. If someone you know experiences a severe allergic reaction, call 911 immediately.
Asthma Asthma has no cure, but it can be managed. Asthma can be life threatening, so those who have it must take the condition seriously and learn to manage it.
Asthma More than 15 million people in the United States have asthma. Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed, causing difficulty in breathing
Asthma The bronchial tubes of people with asthma are highly sensitive to certain substances called triggers.
Asthma Asthma Triggers Air pollution Pet dander Tobacco smoke Microscopic mold Pollen Dust Mites Exercise
Asthma Warning Signs of an Asthma Attack Shortness of breath Chest tightness or pain Coughing Sneezing
Asthma During an asthma attack, the muscles of the bronchial walls tighten and produce extra mucus. Symptoms may range from minor wheezing to severe difficulty in breathing.
Managing Asthma People with asthma can use these self-management strategies: Monitor the condition. Manage your environment. Manage stress. Take medication properly.
Managing Asthma These are some environmental conditions that can trigger asthma.
Managing Asthma Many people with asthma use bronchodilators, or inhalers. These devices deliver medicine that relaxes and widens respiratory passages.
Diabetes Type 2 diabetes is on the rise. Young people are especially at risk today.
Diabetes In a person with diabetes, the pancreas produces too little or no insulin, a hormone that helps glucose from food enter body cells and provide them with energy. Diabetes A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert sugar into energy
Diabetes Symptoms of Diabetes Frequent urination Excessive thirst Unexplained weight loss Sudden changes in vision Tingling in hands or feet Frequent fatigue Sores that are slow to heal More infections than usual
Diabetes Some diabetics do produce enough insulin, but their cells don’t respond normally to it. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being delivered to cells.
Diabetes The only way to diagnose diabetes is through a blood test. Diabetes can be successfully managed with medication, a healthful eating plan, and regular moderate exercise.
Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all diabetes cases. The body fails to produce insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, and cells don’t get the energy they need.
Type 1 Diabetes Over time, the high blood sugar level can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. People with type 1 diabetes must take daily doses of insulin.
Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is known as an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune disease A condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, targeting the cells, tissues, and organs of a person’s own body
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90 to 95 percent of all cases of diabetes. In this form of diabetes, the body is unable to make enough insulin or to use insulin properly.
Type 2 Diabetes Type 2 diabetes usually appears after age 40, but growing numbers of younger people are developing this disease. The increase in childhood obesity is directly linked to the increase in type 2 diabetes among children.
Type 2 Diabetes Some scientists fear that type 2 diabetes will become an epidemic for two reasons: There are more older people in the population. There are more obese and inactive young people.
Type 2 Diabetes To help prevent type 2 diabetes, include these healthful behaviors in your life: Choose low-fat, low-calorie foods. Participate in regular physical activity.
Type 2 Diabetes People with diabetes can live full, normal lives if they manage their condition. Monitor blood sugar levels. Make healthful eating decisions. Engage in regular physical activity. Take prescribed medications.
Arthritis Arthritis is a major cause of disability. There is currently no cure for arthritis, but self- management techniques can reduce pain and improve movement.
Arthritis The two main forms of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis A group of more than 100 different diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in the joints
Osteoarthritis Half of all arthritis cases involve osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis A disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down
Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis causes the cartilage to become pitted and frayed. In time, it may wear away completely, causing the bones to rub painfully against each other.
Osteoarthritis Strategies to Reduce Your Risk Control your weight. Stay active. Prevent sports injuries. Protect against Lyme disease.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is three times more common in women than in men. Rheumatoid arthritis A disease characterized by the debilitating destruction of the joints due to inflammation
Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms and Side Effects Joint pain Inflammation Swelling Stiffness Deformed joints that can’t function normally Possible fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph glands
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an autoimmune disorder. Treatments focus on relieving pain, reducing inflammation, and keeping the joints flexible.
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary Histamines are chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production. They cause sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose, and other allergy symptoms. 1.What are histamines? What role do they play in allergies?
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 2.Name three strategies for managing asthma. Any three: Monitor the condition, manage the environment, manage stress, and take medication properly
After You Read Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 3.What are the two main forms of arthritis? Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis