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Allergies, Asthma, Diabetes, and Arthritis. Allergies Allergy- specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance Sneezing.

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Presentation on theme: "Allergies, Asthma, Diabetes, and Arthritis. Allergies Allergy- specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance Sneezing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Allergies, Asthma, Diabetes, and Arthritis

2 Allergies Allergy- specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance Sneezing and running nose that are thought to be from a cold can be a result from something in the air Allergens- substances that cause allergy Common: pollen, foods, dust, mold spores, chemicals, insect venum, and medicines


4 Antigens on the surface of allergens bind to immune cells in lining of the nasal passages These cells release histamines- chemicals that stimulate mucous and fluid production in an area Produce sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose, and other symptoms Some people can have hives- itchy raised bumps on the skin


6 Severe or life threatening symptoms Hives Itching or swelling of affected area or mouth Difficulty breathing or swallowing Raspy voice Swelling of tongue Sharp drop in blood pressure

7 If you experience these symptoms after eating shellfish or peanuts, or after being stung by a bee or wasp seek medical attention

8 Diagnosing Allergies You can diagnose on your own Notice if you sneeze around certain plants or react to certain foods Three common tests are used to diagnose Blood test Food elimination diet Skin test- skin is scratches and a small amount of allergens are applied – activates inflammatory response

9 Treatment Avoid the allergen Antihistamines- medicine that controls the symptoms that is triggered by histamines Allergies that irritate the respiratory tract can lead to Asthma Immunotherapy- a series of shots that contain small amounts of the allergen to which a person is sensitive to Causes immune system to become less sensitive


11 Other symptoms from eating something does not mean you are allergic to a food Lactose intolerance is not an allergy People allergic to certain foods must avoid the food that causes the reaction- this includes reading the ingredient list on food labels

12 Asthma An inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed causing difficulty in breathing More than 17 million people have Asthma in the US Can develop at any age but 1/3 of those with Asthma are under age 18


14 The bronchiole tubes are sensitive to certain substances- triggers Common triggers Tobacco smoke, air pollution, pet dander, mold, pollen, and dust mites The muscles around the bronchial tubes to tighten and produce extra mucus Results in minor wheezing to severe difficulty in breathing


16 Managing Asthma No cure Four strategies Monitor the condition- recognize signs (shortness of breath, chest tightness, coughing) Manage environment or make behavior changes Manage stress- it can trigger an attack Take medication- can relieve symptoms, prevent flare ups, and reduce sensitivity Bronchodilators- taken with an inhaler, relaxes and widens air pathway

17 Diabetes A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert food into energy No cure Early detection can prevent serious side effects Two Types

18 Severe side effects: Blindness, kidney failure, limb amputations, heart disease and, stroke If diagnosed diabetes can be managed with medication, a healthful diet, and regular exercise It is often preventable

19 Involves insulin- a hormone that the pancreas produces that helps glucose enter the body’s cells Involves glucose- Sugar from carbohydrates we eat, provides energy to cells of the body



22 For our body’s cells to function they need a constant source of energy (glucose) If glucose is not converted into energy, it builds up in the blood, and the body’s cells do not get energy Diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test

23 Type 1 Diabetes 5-10% of all diabetics Appears suddenly No insulin production As a result glucose levels build up in the blood and the body cells starve of energy Over time the high blood sugar level damages eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart Cause is not clear


25 One theory is that a trigger stimulates a person’s body to destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin Autoimmune disease- a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself People with type 1 diabetes must take daily doses of insulin through injections or a surgical pump


27 Type 2 Diabetes Most often appears after age 40 In now being found in teenagers and young adults The body cannot use insulin properly Build up of glucose results blood Becoming an epidemic because of the increase in obesity and inactive lifestyles


29 A diet high in fat, calories, and cholesterol increases the risk Choose low fat, lower calories alternatives Increased physical activity helps control weight and reduces blood cholesterol levels Treatment includes weight management and regular physical activity Diabetic neuropathy- nerve damage Can cause ulcers on the foot which can lead to amputation or Nerve damage in the eye




33 Arthritis A group of more than 100 different diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in joints One in six people suffer from this disease More common in older people but can affect anyone

34 Osteoarthritis A disease in the joints in which cartilage breaks down Most common type of arthritis Cartilage- strong, flexible tissue than cushions joints- becomes pitted and frayed Cartilage can wear out completely and bones will rub against each other Usually affects weight bearing joints Knees, hips, and feet joints But can effect any joint- fingers, lower back


36 Reducing the risk Controlling weight- reduces stress on joints Preventing sports injuries- (warm up and stretch) damages cartilage Protect against Lyme disease- from ticks

37 Rheumatoid Arthritis A disease characterized by the debilitating destruction of joints due to inflammation Appears between ages of 30-50 3 times more common for women than men Autoimmune disease No cure

38 Joint pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness Eventually joints may become deformed Mainly affects joints in the hand, foot, elbow, shoulder, neck, knee, hip, and ankle Other effects include fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes


40 Early diagnoses is crucial With use of medications symptoms can be controlled in many cases Treatment focuses on relieving pain, inflammation, swelling, and stiffness Exercise, rest, joint protection, physical and occupational therapy

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