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Communicable and Chronic Disease - Day 3

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable and Chronic Disease - Day 3"— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable and Chronic Disease - Day 3
SPONGE Communicable and Chronic Disease - Day 3 Name as many health problems as you can that are not infectious. How can someone reduce the risk of having any of the problems you listed above?

2 Communicable and Chronic Disease
Section 3 Noncommunicable Diseases

3 Noncommunicable Diseases
Noncommunicable diseases are diseases that people are born with, or are caused by how they live. Most noncommunicable diseases are chronic diseases, meaning they last over a long time. Michael J. Fox – Parkinson’s Disease

4 What Causes Noncommunicable Diseases?
The person could be born with the disease (ex: Down syndrome.) The person could develop the disease because of the way he or she lives (ex: heart attack.) The person can develop the disease because of a hazard around him or her (ex: cancer.)

5 Top 5 Ways to Avoid Noncommunicable Diseases
Eat a balanced diet and don’t overeat Exercise regularly Lower your stress Avoid alcohol, tobacco and drugs Avoid risky behavior

6 Noncommunicable Diseases
Cardiovascular disease is a disease of the heart and blood vessels. Arteriosclerosis is a hardening and thickening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up on the inside of artery walls.

7 Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular disease is the cause of about half of the deaths in the U.S. each year. A heart attack is the death of heart muscle caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart. A myocardial infarction is the medical term for a heart attack.

8 Cardiovascular Disease
Some risk factors for a heart attack cannot be controlled: Age: most people who have heart attacks are over the age of 45. Gender: men are at a higher risk than women. Genes: if you have family members who have had a heart attack, you are more likely to have one too.

9 Ways to Limit Your Risk for a Heart Attack
Lower your blood cholesterol (a fatlike substance in your blood.) Choose a heart healthy diet – limit sugars, fats, oils and salt. Avoid tobacco – it limits the amount of oxygen in your blood. Keep your blood pressure low by exercising. Maintain a healthy body weight so your heart doesn’t have to work extra hard. Manage stress or your cholesterol and blood pressure will increase.

10 Diabetes is a disease in which the body produces little or no insulin.
Insulin is a hormone that regulates a person’s blood sugar level. Without insulin, your blood begins to fill with sugar, where it crystallizes on your nerves and cells. Also, your cells can not use the sugar they need to work properly. Diabetes

11 Types of Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes: Appears suddenly in young children who lose the ability to make insulin. Type 1 is caused by a genetic defect. Type 2 Diabetes: Most people have this type of diabetes, where the body does produce insulin, but does not have the ability to use it. Type 2 is caused by behavior, though genetics are also a factor.

12 Diabetes: Know the Symptoms
Diabetics must also check their blood sugar many times a day by jabbing a pin into their skin and using a device to test their blood.

13 Type 2 Diabetes There are ways to avoid type 2 diabetes:
Do not eat excessive amounts of sugar or fat. Exercise, so your blood sugar will be used by your muscles instead of staying in your body. Diabetes can cause serious complications: Heart disease Blindness Nerve damage Kidney damage

14 Noncommunicable Diseases
A stroke results from a blocked or broken blood vessel in the brain. They range from minor to deadly. The warning signs of a stroke include unequal pupil size, slurred speech, blurred vision and paralysis of one side of the body. People who are at risk for a stroke have high blood pressure, high cholesterol and are smokers. Diabetics are also at risk.

15 Noncommunicable Diseases
Cancer is a disease in which cells divide in an uncontrolled manner. These cells can form a tumor. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissues. Tumors can be benign or malignant.

16 Cancer A malignant tumor is a cancerous tumor that may spread to the rest of the body. A benign tumor is not harmful. It is a tumor that is not cancerous and does not spread to the rest of the body.

17 Cancer Treatment Many people who have cancer are treated successfully using the following methods: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radio waves to kill or damage cancer cells. Chemotherapy is treatment with anticancer drugs that kill cancerous cells. Surgery can sometimes be used to physically cut the cancer out of a person’s body. All three of these treatments can cause painful side-effects, but are usually worth the risk.

18 Reducing the Risk of Cancer
Some risk factors, like genetics, cannot be controlled. However, you can make healthy choices to avoid cancer: Avoid tobacco and alcohol. Protect yourself from the sun. Eat fruits and vegetables with antioxidants. Maintain a healthy weight. Avoid pollution and dangerous chemicals. Know your family history and have regular medical checkups if you are at risk.

19 Noncommunicable Diseases
Epilepsy is a disorder in which a person brain electricity is not normal, causing them to lose control of their body. People with epilepsy can have two types of seizures: Grand mal seizures are major seizures in which a person convulses (shakes). Petite mal seizures are small seizures where a person loses consciousness for a few seconds.

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