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Answer the following questions on your Journal sheet #1  Can something be a success and a failure?  Explain  Any examples?

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Presentation on theme: "Answer the following questions on your Journal sheet #1  Can something be a success and a failure?  Explain  Any examples?"— Presentation transcript:



3 Answer the following questions on your Journal sheet #1  Can something be a success and a failure?  Explain  Any examples?

4 The Crusades were  A long series or Wars between Christians and Muslims  They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached and died

5 Jerusalem in control of North African Muslims, Fatimids, late 1000s Turkish Muslims took control of Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region Turks attacked Byzantine Empire, destroyed army, 1071 Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope Urban II, for help Muslims Control Holy Land European Christians launched series of religious wars, Crusades, in Middle Ages Goal to take Jerusalem, Holy Land, away from Muslims Jerusalem site of Holy Temple of Jews, also where Jesus crucified, buried, was to come again Goal of Crusades Launching the Crusades

6 Causes of the Crusades Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslims stopped Christians from Visiting Holy Land Christian pilgrims were attacked Byzantine Empire feared attack on Constantinople

7 Pope Urban II and his call  1093- Byzantine Emperor Alexius wanted help to save Constantinople from Turks  asks Church  1095- Pope Urban II issues a call for a “holy” war or Crusade to capture the Holy land (Palestine) back from Muslims  Pope assured that those that die in Crusade will have a place in Heaven

8 Who Answered the Call?  Feudal Lords  Knights  Peasants

9 The First Crusade (1096-1099)  Peasant army  Untrained  Lacked military equipment  Many killed by Muslim Turks  Knights  Succeeded in capturing Jerusalem

10 Crusaders left France in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, nine Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the Holy Land. Crusaders in two groups, peasants and knights Unskilled peasants answered Pope’s call – Eager to fight non-Christians in Holy Land – On the way attacked and slaughtered German Jews despite protests – Fell to Seljuk Turkish army at Jerusalem First Crusade Better trained in warfare than peasants, but unprepared for hardship of journey Traveled three years Siege of Jerusalem victory for Crusaders, disaster for city Renamed four states in Holy Land, intended to be strongholds against future Muslim conquests Knights Fighting the Crusades

11 1st Crusade- 1096  Crusaders capture Jerusalem  1187- Jerusalem falls back to Muslim rule

12 Map of Crusades

13 The Crusaders finally Capture Jerusalem  A small remnient of the Crusader Army (one quarter of those who left Europe) fights to win the city.  Watch the The Fall of Jerusalem. Watch the The Fall of Jerusalem How did technology help the Crusaders win the battle?

14 Journal Entry sheet #2  On page two of you Journal explain why the First Crusade was a success and a failure for the Europeans  What groups “answered the call” to go on the Crusade?  Which Group was the most successful?  Why do you think they were successful.

15 Second Crusade (1147-1149)  Saladin leads the Muslim Turks to victory, defeating the Christians  * He was considered a very wise ruler. He was known for his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry.

16 Third Crusade New leader arose in Muslim world, 1177 Salah ad-Din, known to Europeans as Saladin Overthrew Fatimids, took title of sultan Set out to take back Crusader states, succeeded, drove European Christians out of Jerusalem Second Crusade Muslims began retaking lands lost in First Crusade Took city of Edessa, capital of one Crusader state, 1144 European leaders called for Second Crusade, launched in 1147 Second Crusade a failure, took no lands from Muslims

17 Crusade Europeans travel to the Holy Land on a mission but…  They Fail to recapture the city of Jerusalem

18 Third Crusade  Led by Richard the Lionhearted- King of EnglandRichard the Lionhearted  Despite war, eventually they came to a truce with Saladin, leader of Muslims  Christians (unarmed) would be allowed in city

19 Three Kings Richard, Philip, Frederick set out from Europe on Third Crusade Frederick was killed, Philip quarreled with Richard, returned home Only King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England fought in Holy Land Fierce Fighting Richard, Saladin fought fiercely for control of Holy Land Richard won several battles, not able to drive Muslims out of Holy Land Richard could not take Jerusalem, had to return to England Mutual Respect Richard, Saladin admired each other as military leaders, gentlemen Made proposals for peace, including marriage alliance of Richard’s sister, Saladin’s brother; never took place because of religious differences Third Crusade

20 Fourth Crusade, 1201 Jerusalem still in Muslim hands Crusaders could not pay Venetians to take them to Holy Land In lieu of payment, Crusaders agreed to attack Zara Constantinople Crusaders pushed on Attacked Christian city of Constantinople Ransacked city, made one leader new emperor Zara Zara once belonged to Venice, now held by Christian king of Hungary Pope angered that Christian city attacked, excommunicated all More Failures Disorganization, lack of leadership made Fourth Crusade failure Five other Crusades followed, none successful Fourth and Later Crusades

21 Crusades Continue Through 1200’s  Several more crusades attempted with no victories for the Christians  Children’s crusade, - 30,000 soldiers - many of them under 12 years old – Never made it to the Holy Land

22 Journal Entry sheet #3 Answer the three questions from the next slide On Page Three of you Crusade Journal ( you can check them afterwards)

23 Why did the Europeans launch the Crusades? What was the goal of the Crusades? What were the effects of the Crusades? Main Idea The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of the Holy Land, had a profound economic, political, and social impact on the societies involved. The Crusades

24 Sequence What events led to the call for a Crusade? Answer(s): Seljuk Turks conquered Holy Land, threatened Byzantines; Byzantine emperor called on pope for assistance

25 Sequence What events led to the call for a Crusade? Answer(s): Seljuk Turks conquered Holy Land, threatened Byzantines; Byzantine emperor called on pope for assistance

26 Find the Main Idea What was the goal of the Crusades? Answer(s): to take Jerusalem and the Holy Land away from the Muslims who controlled it

27 Draw Conclusions Why did people’s attitudes change after the Crusades? Answer(s): Europeans became more intolerant and saw Jews and Muslims as enemies; Jews and Muslims saw the Crusaders as enemies

28 Why did the Crusades fail?  After the 1 st attempt, each attempt was weaker with less emphasis on winning  People soon became about making money and getting goods  Stealing from Byzantine and Islamic

29 Journal Entry sheet #4 List three reasons why the Crusades failed?

30 Economic Changes Historic evidence of trade between Muslims, Byzantines, Europeans prior to Crusades Crusades enhanced existing trade Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe Increase in trade added to changing European economy during Middle Ages Crusades led to deaths of many knights, nobles Lands left vulnerable Other ambitious nobles took control of unoccupied lands Nobles then had more power, influence in Europe Political Changes Some Europeans respected other cultures, others intolerant Many viewed non-Christians as enemies, persecuted Jews Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as cruel invaders Relations strained for centuries Social Changes Effects of the Crusades


32 Results of the Crusades  I.F. Turks Traveled they would Trade  I = Improvements – Ships, Maps, Explorers  F = Feudalism declines because Feudal lords die or spend too much money on military.  T = Turks still rule the Holy Land  T = Travel – Europeans want to travel more  T = Trade – Europeans want product from the East such as sugar, cotton, silk, spices, etc.

33 Effects of Crusades  Showed power of Church  Increased trading between East and West --> will lead to massive Cultural Diffusion  Lead to the Commercial Revolution  Muslim bitterness and hatred toward Christians  Constantinople (Istanbul) eventually falls to Turks

34 Effect of Crusades  Increased trading helped business flourish  Merchants increased

35 The growth of Trade:  As time passed trade began to expand and business began to grow  leading to the Commercial Revolution

36 The middle class  Merchants  Traders  Artisans  Craftsmen  They took the economic position between the upper  (wealthy) and the peasants.  Many formed Guilds.  (likeminded businessmen)  Regulated prices and work conditions.  Provided for guild members injured or for their families if they are killed or died.  Trained new guild members apprentices

37 Guild System Click on the link to watch a short video on the definition of Guilds and shows how they work. Guilds VideoGuilds Video

38 What was traded?  -cloth  -dyes  -leather

39 How will increased trading effect society?  -More $$ available  -Merchants get increased power  taxes increase to king  King no longer need to give land for loyalty, instead can give money  -Growth of cities  Move back to cities to trade

40 Results of Commercial Revolution -Businesses grow -End of Feudalism decline/ Serfdom  kings gain power -Trading increases  Age of exploration?? -Banking -Growth of merchants and middle class

41 The Rise of Capitalism / Market Economy  Trade and opportunities for commerce not only created the need for a cash economy but also an opportunity for individuals to gain wealth by investing in themselves or others  When demand for goods increased, investors made more profits, when demand decreased invertors took losses,  Capital means investment.  Economic power shifted away from the nobles (who controlled the manors) to the capitalists who now controlled both the trade and the profits

42 The Economy Transforms From To Barter Cash $$$$

43 Your loss is my gain In order to compete in a cash economy, the local nobles had to convert their assets to cash. Serfs (labor) Land ( fields) In order to maintain their manors, some nobles borrowed from banks. The manorial / feudal systems fall apart.  Serfs now can:  now buy their freedom and work for themselves.  be trained as craftsmen and artisans.  act independently from the local noble.

44 Transference of political power  The local nobles who formerly exercised most of the real political power much of their power  The kings who formerly had little power gain much of the political power lost by the local nobles.

45 Journal Sheet #5 Please answer the following questioins: Increased trade Guilds + Created what For the peasants ( E ______________ P _____________)

46 So do we need feudalism to keep people loyal?  Commercial revolution means end of feudalism  People can live and survive without farming

47 Banking is fixed  Fixing the “coinage” problem:  -Merchants developed notes of credit

48 Journal Sheet #6  Even though the Europeans lost, there were some of the positive effects of the Crusades (for the Europeans).  List two of those positive effects  Do you think those positive effect were worth the lives lost? the lives lost?  How many were Jewish people?

49 Assignment Part One By now you have recorded evidence and information in seven journal entries  Is it possible to unsuccessful and successful at the same time?  Who took part in the Crusade?  What was the goal of the Crusade?  What were the effects?  Why did the Crusades fail?  What were some positive effects of the Crusade?

50 Biblography   jerusalem jerusalem  Selected Death Tolls,  Educational Portal  western-culture-and-economies-in-the-high-middle- ages.html#lesson western-culture-and-economies-in-the-high-middle- ages.html#lesson

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