Presentation on theme: "BY J.A.SACCO FIRST POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM- THE ADAMS ADM. 1797-1801."— Presentation transcript:
BY J.A.SACCO FIRST POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM- THE ADAMS ADM. 1797-1801
THE FIRST POLITICAL PARTY SYSTEM Federalists Led by Washington/Hamilton Bankers/merchants/church leaders NE/business centers Loose construction of constitution Strong central government Rich/educated lead nation Business/trade, imports &tariffs Pro- British Gov’t aim to safeguard property/keep law and order Based on Hobbes Democratic-Republicans Led by Jefferson/Madison Farmers/farm hands-dream of an agrarian nation South/West Strict construction of Constitution Power derived from the states Agrarian America-rich greedy Land/planters important Pro-French Gov’t should allow all to take part/aim is to protect liberty Based on Locke
THE ELECTION OF 1796 Political parties would play a role in elections from this point on in American politics. John Adams Thomas Pinckney Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr FederalistsDemocratic-Republicans
THE ELECTION OF 1796 Who wins the election? Why? Adams wins general election, but electoral vote needs to be cast. Hamilton dislikes Adams, has SC to withhold votes from Adams. This will give Pinckney election. New England hears of this and withholds from Pinckney. A mistake is made. Adams becomes President but Jefferson Vice-President.
THE ADAMS ADM. 1797-1801 Why was the Adams presidency a disaster from the start? Adams favored strong government/people moving away from this Federalist Part splitting- “High Federalists” led by Hamilton. Hamilton challenges Adams’ authority. 1.Tries to steal election 2.Passes Alien and Sedition Acts 3.Passes a direct tax to pay for a standing army Fill shoes of Washington Foreign affairs to much of a challenge V-P was a Democratic-Republican
The XYZ AFFAIR Why did France view the United States as anti- French? Federalists were pro-British Jay Treaty Violate Treaty of 1778 French begin to seize U.S. cargo bound for British ports. French Refuse to receive American ambassador. Treaty needed to prevent War with France.
The XYZ AFFAIR John MarshallElbridge GerryCharles Pinckney Prevent war with France!
The XYZ AFFAIR French demands alienate the U.S. France demand that Adams apologize for anti-French remarks French Foreign Minister Tallyrand send three low level diplomats to negotiate with the U.S. Names not given. French demand $240,000 just to talk Requested 12 million as a loan to France Ambassadors return to U.S.. Americans insulted. Becomes known as the “XYZ Affair”.
The Quasi-War with France Adams creates Navy Dept. Fortify harbors Build warships Strengthen Army Fight an unofficial war with France in the Caribbean
Trouble in the Federalist Party High Federalists, led by Hamilton, use the XYZ Affair and anti-French feeling to weaken Democratic- Republican Party and end opposition. Adams is forced to pass after political pressure. Instead it hurts the Federalist Party Federal property tax is passed as a means to finance the military. Alien and Sedition Acts are passed.
The Alien and Sedition Acts Goal ? 1.Protect the nation from foreign influence. 2.Hurt Dem-Rep. by controlling immigration. Naturalization Act-5-14 years. Alien Act- President given power to imprison/deport aliens considered dangerous to American security. Sedition Act- permit arrest of U.S. citizens who oppose or criticizes Pres./gov’t.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions What would be your response to the Alien and Sedition Acts? Virginia Resolution- (Interposition)- Since states gave the power to the federal gov’t, which was an agreement of all the states (compact theory of union), the states can intervene between themselves and the federal government. Kentucky Resolution-(nullification)- since states created the federal, they can declare a federal law unconstitutional