2Present PerfectWe use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions happened is not important.
3We use the Present Perfect for recently completed actions.
4We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing.
5Present Perfect - UseIt is a combination of past and present. An actions in the past has something to do with the present.
61) Result of an action in the past is important in the present (It is not important when this action happened. When we use a specific time in the past - e.g. yesterday - then we use the Simple Past.)I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)
7Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Has Peggy been there or not?)
82) Recently completed actions He has just played handball. (It is over now.)
9Actions beginning in the past and still continuing - mostly with since (point of time) or for (period of time)We have lived in Canada since (We still live there.)
104) together with lately, recently, yet I have been to London recently. (no specific point of time)
11He has not written the e-mail yet. (He has not done it.)
12PRESENT PERFECT FORMThe present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb.
13The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs .
14AffirmativeSubject to have past participleShe has visited
15Subject to have + not past participle She hasn't visited
16Interrogativeto have subject past participleHas she visited..?
17Interrogative negative to have + not subject past participleHasn't she visited...?
18Example: to walk, present perfect AffirmativeI have walkedYou have walkedHe, she, it has walkedWe have walkedThey have walked
22Sometimes the are exceptions in spelling when adding -ed. 1) consonant after a short, stressed vowel at the end of the wordstop – stopped swap – swapped
23We do not double the consonant if it is not stressed: benefit - benefited (Here we stress the first 'e', not the 'i'.)In Britsh English we double one -l at the end of the word: travel - travelled
242) one -e at the end of the word Leave out the -e. Add -d.love – lovedsave – saved
253) verbs ending in –yVerbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u):Add -ed.play - playedChange 'y' to 'i' after a consonant.Then add -ed. worry - worried
26You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well. For the Present Perfect you need the form of the verb which can be found in the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs.go - went - gone
27Special verbs in the Present Perfect 1) have as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have had a book.he, she, it:He has had a book.
28negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not had a book.he, she, it:He has not had a book.
29questionI, we, you, they:Have I had a book?he, she, it:Has he had a book?
302) be as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have been to Britain.he, she, it:He has been to Britain.
31negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not been to Britain.he, she, it:He has not been to Britain.
32questionI, we, you, they:Have I been to Britain?he, she, it:Has he been to Britain?
333) do as a full verbaffirmative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have done an exercise.he, she, it:He has done an exercise.
34negative sentenceI, we, you, they:I have not done an exercise.he, she, it:He has not done an exercise.
35questionI, we, you, they:Have I done an exercise?he, she, it:Has he done an exercise?
36Long forms and short forms in the Present Perfect We often use short forms of the auxiliaries. The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary have. So short forms are used frequently with the Present Perfect.
37Affirmative long formI, we, you, they:I have gonehe, she, it:he has gone
38Affirmative short form I, we, you, they:I've gonehe, she, it:he's gone
39negative (have not)long form I, we, you, they:I have not gonehe, she, it:he has not gone
40short formI, we, you, they:I haven't gone or I've not gonehe, she, it:he hasn't gone or he's not gone