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PRESENT PERFECT. Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESENT PERFECT. Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESENT PERFECT

2 Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect for actions in the past which have a connection to the present. The time when these actions happened is not important.

3 We use the Present Perfect for recently completed actions.

4 We use the Present Perfect for actions beginning in the past and still continuing.

5 Present Perfect - Use It is a combination of past and present. An actions in the past has something to do with the present.

6 1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present (It is not important when this action happened. When we use a specific time in the past - e.g. yesterday - then we use the Simple Past.) I have cleaned my room. (It is clean now.)

7 Has Peggy ever been to Tokyo? (Has Peggy been there or not?)

8 2) Recently completed actions He has just played handball. (It is over now.)

9 Actions beginning in the past and still continuing - mostly with since (point of time) or for (period of time) We have lived in Canada since (We still live there.)

10 4) together with lately, recently, yet I have been to London recently. (no specific point of time)

11 He has not written the yet. (He has not done it.)

12 PRESENT PERFECT FORM The present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the past participle of the main verb.

13 The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed, e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregular verbs.

14 Affirmative Subject to have past participle She has visited

15 Subject to have + not past participle She hasn't visited

16 Interrogative to have subject past participle Has she visited..?

17 Interrogative negative to have + not subject past participle Hasn't she visited...?

18 Example: to walk, present perfect Affirmative I have walked You have walked He, she, it has walked We have walked You have walked They have walked

19 Negative I haven't walked You haven't walked He, she, it hasn't walked We haven't walked You haven't walked They haven't walked

20 Interrogative Have I walked? Have you walked? Has he,she,it walked Have we walked? Have you walked? Have they walked?

21 Present Perfect - Spelling Add -ed with regular verbs. regular verbs infinitive + -ed

22 Sometimes the are exceptions in spelling when adding -ed. 1) consonant after a short, stressed vowel at the end of the word stop – stopped swap – swapped

23 We do not double the consonant if it is not stressed: benefit - benefited (Here we stress the first 'e', not the 'i'.) In Britsh English we double one -l at the end of the word: travel - travelled

24 2) one -e at the end of the word Leave out the -e. Add -d. love – loved save – saved

25 3) verbs ending in –y Verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u):Add -ed. play - played Change 'y' to 'i' after a consonant. Then add -ed. worry - worried

26 You have to know all forms of the irregular verbs very well. For the Present Perfect you need the form of the verb which can be found in the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs. irregular verbs go - went - gone

27 Special verbs in the Present Perfect 1) have as a full verb affirmative sentence I, we, you, they: I have had a book. he, she, it: He has had a book.

28 negative sentence I, we, you, they: I have not had a book. he, she, it: He has not had a book.

29 question I, we, you, they: Have I had a book? he, she, it: Has he had a book?

30 2) be as a full verb affirmative sentence I, we, you, they: I have been to Britain. he, she, it: He has been to Britain.

31 negative sentence I, we, you, they: I have not been to Britain. he, she, it: He has not been to Britain.

32 question I, we, you, they: Have I been to Britain? he, she, it: Has he been to Britain?

33 3) do as a full verb affirmative sentence I, we, you, they: I have done an exercise. he, she, it: He has done an exercise.

34 negative sentence I, we, you, they: I have not done an exercise. he, she, it: He has not done an exercise.

35 question I, we, you, they: Have I done an exercise? he, she, it: Has he done an exercise?

36 Long forms and short forms in the Present Perfect We often use short forms of the auxiliaries. The Present Perfect is formed with the auxiliary have. So short forms are used frequently with the Present Perfect.

37 Affirmative long form I, we, you, they: I have gone he, she, it: he has gone

38 Affirmative short form I, we, you, they: I've gone he, she, it: he's gone

39 negative (have not)long form I, we, you, they: I have not gone he, she, it: he has not gone

40 short form I, we, you, they: I haven't gone or I've not gone he, she, it: he hasn't gone or he's not gone

41 EXERCISESEXERCISES 1


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