Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Ingredients and Techniques

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Ingredients and Techniques"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ingredients and Techniques
Baking! Ingredients and Techniques Cakes, Cookies, and Pies Quick Breads Yeast Breads and Rolls

2 Basic Ingredients Flour Liquid Leavening agents Fat Sweeteners Eggs

3 Flour Protein and starch in the flour give structure
Gluten- a protein that affects the texture and helps determine how the product will rise Gluten develops when flour is moistened and mixed, and hold the leavening agents Starch helps absorb some of the liquid that is added in most recipes

4 Types of Flour All-purpose flour- the most popular, good results for most products Bread flour- highest gluten content and give bread a strong structure Cake flour- contains less gluten and gives cakes a tender structure Whole-grain flour- weaker gluten than all-purpose flour, some have no gluten at all Products rise less and have a heavy texture Usually combined with all-purpose flour in equal proportions Flour is stirred, not sifted

5 Liquid Water and milk are the most common
Eggs and fat too Hydrate the protein and starch to form the gluten Moistens and dissolves ingredients Leavening agent when converted to steam Milk adds flavor and nutrients, helps brown better Buttermilk gives a slight tangy flavor, affects the kind of leavening agent needed

6 Leavening Agents Leavening agent- substance that produces gas in batters and doughs to make baked products rise and become light Three leavening gases are air, steam, and carbon dioxide Beating eggs, creaming fat and sugar together, folding doughs, and beating batters incorporates air

7 Types of Leavening Agents
Air: Is trapped when creaming fat and sugar, sifting flour, adding beaten egg whites When the mixture is heated, the air expands and the product rises Steam: leavens products that contain high amounts of water Water heats as the product bakes and turns to steam and causes the product to rise

8 Types of Leavening Agents cont
Yeast: produces carbon dioxide as it grows Needs food (flour and sugar), liquid, and warm temperature Active dry yeast and quick-rising dry yeast come packaged in dry granules Quick rising leavens dough in half amount of time Can be stored at room temperature and use before expiration date

9 Leavening Agents cont Baking Soda: when mixed with flour and heated releases carbon dioxide Can produce an off flavor and color, so it is usually combined with an acidic ingredient Baking Powder: contain a dry acid, baking soda, and starch or flour Double acting baking powder- release some carbon dioxide when moistened, and the rest when heated Too much baking powder can cause a product to collapse

10 Fat Adds richness, flavor, and tenderness
Usually cannot be eliminated, but can be substituted or reduced Applesauce or pureed dry fruits Solid and liquid fats are not easily substituted with each other Cannot use soft, liquid, or whipped margarine because they contain air, water, or oil and can affect the outcome

11 Eggs Add flavor, richness, nutrients, and color Help form structure
Add air when beaten Can use substitutes such as just egg whites or liquid substitutes

12 Sweeteners and Flavorings
Sugar adds sweetness and flavor, helps crust brown Fruits, vegetables, and nuts add flavor, texture, and nutrients Herbs, spices, and extracts in small amounts

13 Batters and Doughs Amount of liquid in relation to flour determines batter or dough Pour batters: steady stream Cakes, pancakes, waffles Drop batters: thick, spooned in pans Quick breads and cookies Soft doughs: sticky Biscuits, breads, cookies Stiff doughs: firm Piecrust and cookies

14 Successful Baking of a Cake

15 Measuring Ingredients
Correct amount of flour gives the correct amount of gluten needed for structure Correct amounts of fat and sugar tenderize the gluten Too much weakens the cake Correct amount of liquid provides moisture for the gluten to form Correct number of eggs gives proteins that strengthen the gluten

16 Mixing Cakes Mix the correct proportions of ingredients with the correct mixing method Over mixing will cause the gluten to overdevelop, it will be tough 2 types of mixing methods: Conventional Quick mix

17 Conventional Mixing Method
Cream fat and sugar together until light and fluffy Beat eggs into creamed fat and sugar Add dry ingredients alternately with liquid ingredients Dry ingredients are usually sifted together in a separate bowl

18 Quick Mix Method Measure dry ingredients into mixing bowl
Beat the fat and part of the liquid with the dry ingredients Add remaining liquid and unbeaten eggs last

19 Baking Cakes Choose the appropriate size pan
The cake will have a gently rounded top if using the correct size pan Grease and flour the pans, bottom and sides Place in preheated oven and bake just until done Insert a toothpick in the center and it will come out clean when done

20 Quick Breads Can be high in fat Great source of: Use whole grains:
Carbohydrates Protein B vitamins Iron Use whole grains: Add fiber and minerals Fruit, vegetable, nuts add nutrition

21 Muffin Method Sift or mix all dry ingredients together
Make a well in the center Beat all liquid ingredients until well blended Pour liquid into the well Mix enough to moisten Some flour spots will remain and batter will be lumpy Fold in other ingredients

22 Overmixed Muffins Peaks on top Tough and heavy
Long, narrow tunnels on inside

23 Preparing and Baking Muffins
Grease pan or use paper cups Fill 2/3 full Test for doneness 5 minutes before end of cooking time Insert toothpick; should come out clean Nicely browned

24 Loaf Breads Mixed using the muffin method
Cooked in greased loaf pan with parchment paper on the bottom for easy removal Check for doneness same as muffins Top of bread may crack

25 Types of Cookies Rolled- requires a stiff dough Dropped- soft dough
Cookie cutters are used Example: sugar cookies Dropped- soft dough Drop or push off from spoon Spread more when cooked than rolled cookies, place 2 inches apart on cookie sheet Example: chocolate chip cookies

26 continued Bar- soft dough Refrigerator- high proportion of fat
Spread in square pan Can be chewy or cake like depending on thickness Example: brownies Refrigerator- high proportion of fat Form dough into long roll, cover with foil or plastic wrap and refrigerate until firm Cut in thin slices once firm Example: pinwheels

27 continued Pressed- rich, stiff dough Molded- stiff dough
Pack into cookie press Press out onto cookie sheet and bake Example: spritz cookies Molded- stiff dough Break off small pieces of dough and shape with fingers Examples: crescents and small balls

28 Cookie Ingredients Flour, sugar, liquid, fat, salt, egg, and leavening agents Have more fat and sugar and less liquid than cakes

29 Mixing Methods Conventional mixing method
Cream fat and sugar, then add eggs, then flour Cookies should be crisp and chewy, rather than light and fluffy

30 Pans to Use Flat baking pan or cookie sheet
Should not have high sides Bright shiny cookie sheets will give a light, delicate brown crust Dark cookie sheets will give dark bottoms May have to rotate pans during cooking to cook evenly is baking more than 1 pan

31 Storage Store crisp cookies in a container with a loose lid
Store soft cookies in a container with an air tight lid

Download ppt "Ingredients and Techniques"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google