A group of words that contains at least a simple subject and a simple predicate. Two main types of clauses: ◦ Independent ◦ Dependent
AKA – main clause – contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. The clause can stand alone Examples ◦ We walked into the room. ◦ What are you doing here? ◦ Be careful with that hot water!
AKA – subordinate clause – contains a subject and a verb, but does not express a complete thought. Clause begin with a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun and cannot stand alone. Example: ◦ Because it was late, we decided not to go. ◦ I am sorry that you are ill.
After Although As Because Before How If Since Than That Though Until When Where Whether While
Nominal clause or noun clause Adverbial clause or adverb clause Adjectival clause or adjective or relative clause
Noun clause contains a subject and a verb and are introduced by a subordinating conjunction or a relative pronoun. Noun clause can act as a subject, object, or complement. Examples: ◦ Whatever you decide can wait until tomorrow. (verb)
Examples: ◦ Whatever you decide can wait until tomorrow. (verb) ◦ The question is whether we should go. (subject complement after linking verb “is” ◦ We argued about who will complete the project. (object of preposition “about”)
Contain a subject and a verb, are introduced by a subordination conjunction, and can appear before or after the main verb. This clause indicates when, where, why, and how something happens.
Before he left for vacation, Joe checked the weather. (indicates when he checked) We waited for Susana because she had the tickets. (indicates why we waited)
Act as adjectives Relative clauses describe or give information about the nouns or pronouns introduced by a relative pronoun.
The adjectival clauses are underlined and the relative pronouns are bold. Cynthia is the girl who won the dance contest. This is the park where we met our friends.
Which What Where Who Whom When That Whichever Whatever Wherever Whoever Whomever Whenever whether
A group of words that does not have a finite or limited verb and functions as a single part of speech. Examples: ◦ Adverbial phrases-Participle phrases ◦ Prepositional phrases-Absolute phrases ◦ Infinitive phrases-Appositives phrases ◦ Gerund phrases
A word or expression that acts as an adverb, modifying a verb, adjective, or another adverb. ◦ Below in bold is adverbial phrase and the underlined word is the verb, adjective or adverb it modifies Example: ◦ We walked around the track for an hour. ◦ Is it always so humid after a thunderstorm?
Begins with a preposition and acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Example: ◦ After dusk is the best time to look for stars. (acts as noun – subject of verb “is”) ◦ We jumped over the puddle. (acts as adverb – modifying “jumped”)
Base verb + suffix Can be used as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns. Based on verbs and express action or a state of being Examples: present or past ◦ ing-en-t ◦ ed-d-n
Begins with a participle and acts as an adjective Set off with commas Examples: ◦ The window, broken since last month, was finally fixed. ◦ Dominique, having just eaten, did not go to dinner with us.
A noun or pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain Usually set off by commas Example: ◦ The main character, Tom Sawyer, appeals to me.