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Chapter 11 Section 2 Unrest in Rural America

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1 Chapter 11 Section 2 Unrest in Rural America
Populism- Political movement to increase the power of farmers. Greenbacks-Issued during Civil War Could not be exchanged for gold or silver Inflation- increase in $ supply, decline in value of $ Government response- 1. Stopped printing Greenbacks 2. Stopped making silver coins 3. Caused deflation D. Deflation caused farmers to borrow money to plant crops 1. Interest rates went up. E. Farmers wanted more Greenbacks printed and more silver coins minted

2 F. The Grange- National farm organization
G. Cooperatives- Marketing organizations for farmers 1. Pooled crops and held them out of market to increase prices. II. Farmers’ Alliance A. Organized cooperatives called exchanges 1. Wholesalers, manufacturers, railroads, and bankers discriminated against exchanges B. Kansas Alliance formed the People’s Party or Populists III. Rise of Populism A. Farmers Alliance Issued Ocala Demands 1. Subtreasury 2. Silver Coinage 3. end of Tariffs 4. end of National Bank 5. railroad regulation 6. direct election of Senators B. Many pro-Alliance Democrats were elected in the South C. July 1892-People’s Party held a national convention 1. Platform similar to Ocala Demands

3 D. Added workers’ issues to farmers’ issues
E. Panic of 1893 caused President Cleveland to abandon Silver coins. F. Democrats split into Goldbugs and Silverites IV. Election of 1896 A. Dems nominated William Jennings Bryan B. Republicans nominated William McKinley C. Populists supported Bryan D. McKinley won.

4 Section 3 Resistance and Repression
A. Most African Americans were sharecroppers 1. landless farmers 2. Paid a share of their crops for rent B. Exodusters-Mass migration to Kansas 1. Benjamin “Pap” Singleton C. Colored Farmers National Alliance 1. many joined Populist Party 2. Democrats began using racism to win back the poor white vote

5 II. Disfranchising African Americans
A. Civil Rights Amendments 1. 13th Abolished Slavery 2. 14th Anyone born or naturalized in the U.S. is a citizen 3. 15th Cannot keep anyone from voting based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude. B. Southern States found loopholes in the 15th Amendment Mississippi-Required a poll tax 2. Also required a literacy test C. Grandfather Clause- protected poor whites 1. Could vote if you had an ancestor on the voting roles in 1867 III. Legalizing Segregation A. Segregation-Separation of the races 1. North and South 2. Jim Crow Laws

6 Jim Crow Laws

7 B. 1883-Supreme Court overturned the 1875 Civil Rights Act
1. Businesses and organizations were free to practice segregation C. Supreme Court Case of Plessy v. Ferguson 1. “Separate but Equal” facilities for African Americans was legal 2. Established a legal basis for discrimination D. Mob violence 1, Between hundreds of lynchings took place in the U.S. IV. The African American Response A. Ida B. Wells-crusaded against lynching B. Booker T. Washington- Urged African Americans to focus on economic achievement rather than political C. W.E.B. Du Bois-Believed that African Americans had to demand their right, especially voting rights, to gain full equality.

8 Wells Washington Du Bois

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