Presentation on theme: "11-3 The Rise of Segregation. Resistance and Repression Sharecroppers – farmer who works land for an owner who provides equipment and seed and receives."— Presentation transcript:
Resistance and Repression Sharecroppers – farmer who works land for an owner who provides equipment and seed and receives a share of the crop. Largely consisted of American Americans living in the rural South and were always in debt. – Eventually left farming and sought jobs in Southern towns
“Exodusters” Mass migration of thousands of African Americans from the rural South to Kansas. Newspapers compared it to the Hebrews leaving Egypt, as “an Exodus” They later became known as “Exodusters”.
The Colored Farmer’s National Alliance While some African Americans left the South, others stayed and worked with the Farmers’ Alliance and ended up creating their own organization. The CFNA worked towards helping its members economically by setting u p cooperatives. Many CFNA members supported the People’s Party to challenge the Democratic power in the South.
15 th Amendment This amendment prohibited states from denying citizens the right to vote based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Found other loopholes – Property owners – Be literate
Disfranchising African Americans Poll tax – a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote. ($2) Grandfather clause – a clause that allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction began; an exception to a law based on preexisting circumstances.
Legalizing Segregation Segregation – the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group Jim Crow laws – statutes or laws created to enforce segregation Lynching – an execution performed without lawful approval
Mary Church Terrell Grew up with many advantages – Father was a son of a wealthy white man, one of the nations first African American millionaires – Spared no expense for his daughter’s education Rather than staying in Europe where she studied, she came back “to promote the welfare of my race” She taught at an African American high school in Washington, D.C. and became the first president of the National Association of Colored Women.
Plessy v. Ferguson In 1892 Homer Plessy, an African American, challenged a Louisiana law that forced him to ride in a separate railroad car from whites. Judge John H. Ferguson presided the trial and gave the ruling that the law was valid and the “separate but equal” doctrine was adopted.
Ida B. Wells A young African American woman that launched a fearless crusade against lynching in 1892. She reported in the Memphis Free Speech newspaper that three African American grocers had been lynched simply for successfully competing against white grocers. – She was driven out of town. In 1895 she published a book denouncing mob violence against African Americans.
Booker T. Washington An influential African American educator, striving for civil rights through education and vocation to have a longer- lasting effect. Proposed that African Americans should concentrate on achieving economic goals rather than legal/political ones. Gave a speech known as the Atlanta Compromise
Atlanta Compromise Speech given by Booker T. Washington at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta. Given amid increasing acts of discrimination against African Americans. Washington urged his fellow African Americans to concentrate on preparing themselves educationally and vocationally for full equality.
W. E. B. Du Bois Washington’s speech sparked a strong response in Du Bois. Leader of a new generation of African American activists born after the Civil War. Author of The Souls of Black Folk Du Bois wanted African Americans to demand their rights – Particularly voting rights
Du Bois Quote “Negroes must insist continually, in season and out of season, that voting is necessary to proper manhood, that color discrimination is barbarism.”