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Ch 16 Politics and Reform.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 16 Politics and Reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 16 Politics and Reform

2 Wizard of Oz Characters
Dorothy Munchkins Wizard Yellow Brick Road Silver Slippers Toto Tin Man Scarecrow Lion Oz Emerald City Wicked Witch of the West

3 Sec 1 Stalemate in Washington
From 1877 to 1896 Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched that few reforms were possible in government

4 President Rutherford B
President Rutherford B. Hayes began to attempt to reform patronage – giving government jobs to supporters

5 Republicans known as Stalwarts opposed civil service reform and accused Hayes of wanting to open government spots for his own people Civil Service reformers became known as Halfbreeds

6 The main candidate for president in 1880 was a “halfbreed”, James Garfield, and his VP was a “stalwart”, Chester Allen Arthur They won the election

7 President Garfield was assassinated a few months into his presidency
He was killed by a Stalwart, Charles Guiteau who wanted a civil service job

8 Congress then passed the Pendleton Act
This allowed the president to fill positions based on rules set up by a bipartisan Civil Service Commission

9 Candidates for positions competed through examinations

10 2 Parties, Neck and Neck During the 1870’s and 1880’s the Democrats had control of the House and the Republicans had control of the Senate

11 The presidential elections were all very close from 1876 to 1896
In 1876 and 1888, the candidate who won the election, lost the popular vote

12 In 1884 the Republicans were divided over reform and so Democrat Grover Cleveland, a reformer opposed to Tammany Hall won the election

13 Cleveland's administration was marred by strikes and disagreements in government
A bomb exploded at a labor demonstration in Haymarket Square

14 One major legislation Cleveland passed was the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate trade between the states

15 In 1888 Republicans regained the presidency with Benjamin Harrison
They also gained control of both houses of Congress

16 The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was passed and made trusts illegal
Courts however did little to enforce it The McKinley Tariff raised taxes on imports in the country

17 Sec 2 Populism Populism was a political movement in the 1890’s that emerged to increase the political power of farmers and to push for the silver coinage of money

18 To help finance the Civil War the government had issued millions of dollars in greenbacks, paper money.

19 This first led to inflation
This first led to inflation. Then when the government stopped printing money and stopped making silver coins it caused deflation. Deflation caused most farmers to borrow money to plant their crops

20 Farmers wanted more money printed that was backed by silver to bring down interest rates on their loans.

21 Grange members formed cooperatives to help regulate crop prices
The cooperatives held crops off the market to force the prices to rise

22 The Rise of Populism In 1890 the Farmer’s Alliance issued the Ocala Demands to help farmers choose candidates for the elections Many pro-Alliance Democrats were elected in the South

23 By 1894 the Panic of 1893 had turn into a depression
In 1896 the Democrats and Progressives nominated William Jennings Bryan for president after his famous speech “A Cross of Gold”

24 The Republicans went with William McKinley
New gold strikes the 1900s in Alaska and Canada’s Yukon Territory increased the money supply and the need for silver died out The Populist Party died with it

25 Sec 3 Resistance and Repression
Many African Americans migrated to the West and North during reconstruction This became known as the Great Migration

26 Voting Rights Mississippi was the first to require a poll tax
Other states also required a literacy test

27 This practice of taking away someone’s right to vote is called disfranchising
Alabama rewrote their state constitution in 1901 mainly to disfranchise blacks

28 Legalizing Segregation
In the South, segregation was enforced by Jim Crow Laws The Supreme Court ruling in Plessey v. Ferguson endorsed “separate but equal” facilities

29 African American Response
In 1892, Ida B. Wells, began a crusade against lynching Booker T. Washington delivered his most famous speech, the Atlanta Compromise

30 W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans had to demand their rights
He would go on to be one of the early influential leaders of the NAACP


32 2 Questions 1) Of the two leaders during the time, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois, which do you think would have been more effective if left unchallenged? 2) How does Martin Luther King compare to both?

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