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CH 16 POLITICS AND REFORM. WIZARD OF OZ CHARACTERS  DorothyMunchkins  WizardYellow Brick Road  Silver SlippersToto  Tin Man  Scarecrow  Lion  Oz.

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Presentation on theme: "CH 16 POLITICS AND REFORM. WIZARD OF OZ CHARACTERS  DorothyMunchkins  WizardYellow Brick Road  Silver SlippersToto  Tin Man  Scarecrow  Lion  Oz."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH 16 POLITICS AND REFORM

2 WIZARD OF OZ CHARACTERS  DorothyMunchkins  WizardYellow Brick Road  Silver SlippersToto  Tin Man  Scarecrow  Lion  Oz  Emerald City  Wicked Witch of the West

3 SEC 1 STALEMATE IN WASHINGTON  From 1877 to 1896 Republicans and Democrats were so evenly matched that few reforms were possible in government

4  President Rutherford B. Hayes began to attempt to reform patronage – giving government jobs to supporters

5  Republicans known as Stalwarts opposed civil service reform and accused Hayes of wanting to open government spots for his own people  Civil Service reformers became known as Halfbreeds

6  The main candidate for president in 1880 was a “halfbreed”, James Garfield, and his VP was a “stalwart”, Chester Allen Arthur  They won the election

7  President Garfield was assassinated a few months into his presidency  He was killed by a Stalwart, Charles Guiteau who wanted a civil service job

8  Congress then passed the Pendleton Act  This allowed the president to fill positions based on rules set up by a bipartisan Civil Service Commission

9  Candidates for positions competed through examinations

10 2 PARTIES, NECK AND NECK  During the 1870’s and 1880’s the Democrats had control of the House and the Republicans had control of the Senate

11  The presidential elections were all very close from 1876 to 1896  In 1876 and 1888, the candidate who won the election, lost the popular vote

12  In 1884 the Republicans were divided over reform and so Democrat Grover Cleveland, a reformer opposed to Tammany Hall won the election

13  Cleveland's administration was marred by strikes and disagreements in government  A bomb exploded at a labor demonstration in Haymarket Square

14  One major legislation Cleveland passed was the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate trade between the states

15  In 1888 Republicans regained the presidency with Benjamin Harrison  They also gained control of both houses of Congress

16  The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was passed and made trusts illegal  Courts however did little to enforce it  The McKinley Tariff raised taxes on imports in the country

17 SEC 2 POPULISM  Populism was a political movement in the 1890’s that emerged to increase the political power of farmers and to push for the silver coinage of money

18  To help finance the Civil War the government had issued millions of dollars in greenbacks, paper money.

19  This first led to inflation. Then when the government stopped printing money and stopped making silver coins it caused deflation.  Deflation caused most farmers to borrow money to plant their crops

20  Farmers wanted more money printed that was backed by silver to bring down interest rates on their loans.

21  Grange members formed cooperatives to help regulate crop prices  The cooperatives held crops off the market to force the prices to rise

22 THE RISE OF POPULISM  In 1890 the Farmer’s Alliance issued the Ocala Demands to help farmers choose candidates for the 1890 elections  Many pro-Alliance Democrats were elected in the South

23  By 1894 the Panic of 1893 had turn into a depression  In 1896 the Democrats and Progressives nominated William Jennings Bryan for president after his famous speech “A Cross of Gold”

24  The Republicans went with William McKinley  New gold strikes the 1900s in Alaska and Canada’s Yukon Territory increased the money supply and the need for silver died out  The Populist Party died with it

25 SEC 3 RESISTANCE AND REPRESSION  Many African Americans migrated to the West and North during reconstruction  This became known as the Great Migration

26 VOTING RIGHTS  Mississippi was the first to require a poll tax  Other states also required a literacy test

27  This practice of taking away someone’s right to vote is called disfranchising  Alabama rewrote their state constitution in 1901 mainly to disfranchise blacks

28 LEGALIZING SEGREGATION  In the South, segregation was enforced by Jim Crow Laws  The Supreme Court ruling in Plessey v. Ferguson endorsed “separate but equal” facilities

29 AFRICAN AMERICAN RESPONSE  In 1892, Ida B. Wells, began a crusade against lynching  Booker T. Washington delivered his most famous speech, the Atlanta Compromise

30  W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans had to demand their rights  He would go on to be one of the early influential leaders of the NAACP

31

32 2 QUESTIONS  1) Of the two leaders during the time, Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois, which do you think would have been more effective if left unchallenged?  2) How does Martin Luther King compare to both?


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