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The Gilded Age "What is the chief end of man?--to get rich. In what way?--dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must." -- Mark Twain-1871.

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Presentation on theme: "The Gilded Age "What is the chief end of man?--to get rich. In what way?--dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must." -- Mark Twain-1871."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Gilded Age "What is the chief end of man?--to get rich. In what way?--dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must." -- Mark Twain-1871

2 Gilded Age Everyone man was a potential wealthy businessman Americans starting living more lavishly than ever before However, many Americans were still living below the poverty line Gilded means covered in gold on the outside but made of cheaper material on the inside The few wealthy were celebrating like never before while the masses were living in urban tenements

3 Gilded Age Beliefs Individualism – The thought that no matter what a person’s background, he or she can still become successful Social Darwinism – based on Darwin’s theory of evolution and natural selection. Believed humans have developed through competition and natural selection with only the strongest surviving Gospel of Wealth – a gentler version of social Darwinism. Believed that wealthy Americans should engage in philanthropy and use their fortunes to help people. – Ex: Building schools and hospitals rather than giving a handout

4 Changing Culture Changes in art and entertainment Realism – artists and writers portrayed the world realistically

5 Helping the Urban Poor Social Gospel – worked to better conditions in cities according to biblical ideals of charity and justice Settlement House – community center where reformers resided and offered medical care, English classes, Kindergarten, and recreational programs for those in poor neighborhoods – Ex: Hull House – opened by Jane Addams in Chicago

6 Populism

7 Populism – The People’s Party Populism – movement to increase farmer’s political power and to work for legislation (laws) in their interest Goals: Free coinage of silver, subtreasury plan, end protective tariffs, tighten railroad regulations, direct election of senators, graduated income tax

8 Goals of Populist 1) Adjust Money Supply Country was undergoing deflation (increase in the value of money and a decrease in prices) due to stopping the production of greenbacks (paper money) and silver coins – Not enough money in circulation so price of goods went down leading to less money for farmers Eastern farmers wanted to print more greenbacks while Western farmers wanted to mint silver coins (free coinage of silver) Corn: 1 cent

9 2) Create Cooperatives – marketing organizations that tried to increase prices and lower costs for its members – Ex. The Grange Farmers could not charge higher prices for goods because too much competition If farmers got together and pooled crops together then they could negotiate better railroad shipping rates – Not work because railroads often refused to do business with them

10 Cooperatives Continued Farmers Alliance was an organization that tried to create large cooperatives called exchanges They wanted to create a large enough exchange that could force farm prices up and make loans to farmers at low interest rates Failed because never big enough to affect world prices

11 3) Subtreasury plan – addition to cooperatives Government would set up warehouses to store crops called subtreasuries Farmers could hold crops long enough to even supply and demand forcing crop prices up

12 4) Graduated Income Tax – tax higher earnings more heavility

13 Rise of Segregation Segregation – separation of the races 15 th Amendment gave African American males the right to vote – Southern states used poll taxes and literacy tests to keep African Americans from voting – Grandfather clause- allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor who could vote

14 Jim Crow Laws Created by Plessy v. Ferguson Laws that enforced segregation Allowed for ‘separate but equal’

15 African American activists Mary Church Terrell – Battled against lynching, racism, and sexism – Worked with women’s suffrage workers – Helped found the NAACP Ida Wells – led a crusade against lynching – published a book denouncing mob violence – Demanded a fair trial by law

16 African American Activists continued Booker T. Washington – Focused on achieving economic goals – Felt African Americans could use education to achieve full equality W.E.B. DuBois – Protected voting rights – Helped found the NAACP

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