Presentation on theme: "Politics and Reform Section 1: Stalemate in Washington Section 2: Populism Section 3: The Rise in Segregation Standards: 2.1, 2.3, 2.9. 2.12."— Presentation transcript:
Politics and Reform Section 1: Stalemate in Washington Section 2: Populism Section 3: The Rise in Segregation Standards: 2.1, 2.3, 2.9. 2.12
Section 1: Stalemate in Washington A Campaign to Clean Up Politics Patronage: government jobs go to the supporters of the winning party in an election. “Spoils System” –Stalwarts and Halfbreeds Stalwarts – Roscoe Conkling –Chester A. Arthur (Vice President) Halfbreeds – Republican reformers –James Garfield (President) –The Pendleton Act: Allowed the president to decide which federal jobs would be filled according to the rules of the Civil Service Commission Under Pres. Arthur, 14,000 jobs were placed under this program
Two Parties, Neck and Neck –Republicans “party of morality” –Democrats “party of personal freedom” Democrats Reclaim the White House Tammany Hall- corruption/political machine Mugwumps – “Good chiefs”- renegade reformers who supported Pres. Cleveland. They saw themselves as moral leaders who were more concerned with helping the nation instead of the party James G. Blaine attempted to get Roman Catholics to leave the Democratic Party. Lost the Irish vote when he didn’t counter/respond to a Protestant Minister’s comments condemning the Irish Catholics.
A President Besieged by Problems –The Interstate Commerce Commission: the first federal law designed to regulate interstate trade. Limited railroad rates, forbade rebates, and made it illegal to charge higher rates for shorter distances. Rebates: a partial refund to lower the rate of a good or service –Debating Tariffs
Republicans Regain Power –The McKinley Tariff: lowered federal revenue and changed the nation’s budget surplus into a budget deficit. Surplus: having more than what is needed Deficit: having less than what is needed –The Sherman Antitrust Act: made it illegal for any form of trust or conspiracy to restrain trade or commerce among states. American Sugar Refining Company was deemed a trust and very nearly a monopoly, but was considered by the Supreme Court that it was not in violation of the Act.
Section 2: Populism Unrest in Rural America Populism: a political movement founded in the 1890s that mainly represented farmers, favored free coinage of silver, and favored government control of railroads and other big industries –The Money Supply Greenbacks: U.S. paper money Inflation: money loses value, higher prices Deflation: lower prices, higher buying power –Deflation Hurts Farmers The Crime of ’73: The decision of the government to stop the minting of silver
–The Grange Takes Action Cooperatives: marketing organizations that worked to benefit their members –The Grange Fails Didn’t change economic problems of farmers Railroads fought back by cutting services and refusing to lay more track Wabash v. Illinois: limited a state’s ability to regulate the railroads, states could not regulate interstate commerce The Farmers’ Alliance Lampasas County, Texas 1877 Charles Macune –The Alliance Grows Kansas Nebraska North Dakota South Dakota South and Great Plains –The People’s Party: Populists –The Subtreasury Plan: called for the government to set up warehouses where farmers could store crops for low-interest loans until prices increased.
The Rise of Populism Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890: authorized the U.S. Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of silver a month, put more money into circulation in an attempt to help farmers –The South Turns to Populism Many Southern Democrats move to Populist Party –A Populist for President James B. Weaver –Graduated income tax: taxation of higher earnings more heavily –Government ownership of railroads –The Panic of 1893: Economic Crisis Stock Market on Wall Street Crash Banks closed Economic Depression –Goldbugs and Silverites Goldbugs: believed money should be based on the gold standard Silverites: thought that by minting unlimited amounts would solve the economic problems in the U.S.
The Election of 1896 William Jennings Bryan –S–Supported the minting of silver –B–Bryan’s Campaign 600 speeches in 14 weeks Republicans nominate William McKinley as the man who could beat Bryan –T–The Front Porch Campaign William McKinley spoke only at his Canton, Ohio home. Delegates came to see him at his home. Full Dinner Pan Unemployment would rise, wages would be cut –P–Populism Declines Depression ends Gold in Canada, Alaska, and South Africa increase money supply
Section 3: The Rise of Segregation Resistance and Repression Sharecroppers: landless farmers who paid in the form of crops to a landlord for supplies, rent, seed, tools and other supplies; were always in debt –Exodus to Kansas Exodusters: migrants of African Americans from the rural South to Kansas –Forming a Separate Alliance Colored Farmers’ National Alliance: helped African Americans economically by setting up cooperatives –Cooperatives: a store where farmers bought products from each other; an organization that is owned and run by the people who use the services –Crushing the Populist Revolt An appeal to racism “Black Republicanism” a step back to Reconstruction
Disfranchising African Americans Poll tax: people had to pay to register to vote Literacy tests Had to own property Grandfather clause: In Louisiana this clause allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on the voting rolls in 1867, which made former slaves ineligible to vote Legalizing Segregation Segregation: separation of the races Jim Crow laws: statutes that enforced segregation Supreme Court overturns the Civil Rights Act of 1875 –No longer a violation to keep people out based solely on color –Racial Violence Lynching: executions without proper court hearings –80% in the South –70% of the victims were African Americans
The African American Response Ida B. Wells –Memphis Free Speech –Anti-lynching »Said it was greed not just racial prejudice that led to the brutal acts and violence –Mob destroyed printing press of Memphis Free Speech and drove Ida from town –A Call for Compromise Booker T. Washington: proposed that African Americans concentrate on education and economic gains rather than deal with politics Atlanta Compromise: Booker T. Washington wanted the African American population to postpone the fight for Civil Rights until they were prepared to full equality. –A Voice of the Future W.E.B. Du Bois –The Souls of Black Folk –Promoting and protecting the voting rights of African Americans was the only way to reach equality.